Translated by George Thibaut
1. Then therefore
the enquiry into Brahman.
2. (Brahman is that) from which the origin of this (world proceed).
3. Because Scripture is the source (of the knowledge of Brahman).
4. But that (i.e. the authoritativeness of Scripture with regard to Brahman)
exists on account of the connection (of Scripture with the highest aim of man).
5. On account of seeing (i.e. thinking) that which is not founded on Scripture
(i.e. the Pradhâna) is not (what is taught by the texts referring to the origination
of the world).
6. If it be said that (the word 'seeing') has a secondary (figurative) meaning;
we deny this, on account of the word 'Self' (being applied to the cause of the
7. Because release is taught of him who takes his stand on it.
8. And because there is no statement of its having to be set aside.
9. And on account of the contradiction of the initial statement.
10. On account of (the individual soul) going to the Self.
11. On account of the uniformity of view.
12. And because it is directly stated in Scripture.
13. The Self consisting of Bliss (is the highest Self) on account of multiplication.
14. If, on account of its being a word denoting an effect, (ânandamaya be said)
not (to denote the highest Self); (we say) no, on account of abundance.
15. And because he is declared to be the cause of thatra.
16. And because that (Brahman) which is referred to in the mantra is declared
(to be the ânandamaya).
17. Not the other, on account of impossibility.
18. And on account of the declaration of difference.
19. And on account of desire, there is no regard to what is inferred (i.e. matter).
20. And Scripture teaches the joining of this (i.e. the individual soul) with
that (i.e. bliss) in that (i.e. the ânandamaya).
21. The one within (the sun and the eye); on account of his qualities being
22. And on account of the declaration of difference (the highest Self is) other
(than the individual souls of the sun, &c.).
23. Ether (is Brahman), on account of the characteristic marks.
24. For the same reason breath (is Brahman).
25. The light (is Brahman), on account of the mention of feet.
26. If it be objected that (Brahman is) not (denoted) on account of the metre
being denoted; (we reply) not so, because thus the direction of the mind (on
Brahman) is declared; for thus it is seen.
27. And thus also, because (thus only) the designation of the beings, and so
on, being the (four) feet is possible.
28. If it be said that (Brahman is) not (recognised) on account of the difference
of designation; (we say) not so, on account of there being no contradiction
in either (designation).
29. Prâna is Brahman, on account of connexion.
30. If it be said that (Brahman is) not (denoted) on account of the speaker
denoting himself; (we say, not so), because the multitude of connexions with
the inner Self (is possible only) in that (speaker if viewed as Brahman).
31. The instruction (given by Indra about himself) (is possible) through insight
based on Scripture, as in the case of Vâmadeva.
32. If it be said (that Brahman is not meant) on account of characteristic marks
of the individual soul and the chief vital air; we say no, on account of the
threefoldness of meditation; on account of (such threefold meditation) being
met (in other texts also); and on account of (such threefold meditation) being
appropriate here (also).
because there is taught what is known.
2. And because the qualities meant to be stated are possible (in Brahman).
3. But, on account of impossibility, not the embodied soul.
4. And because there is (separate) denotation of the object and the agent.
5. On account of the difference of words.
6. And on account of Smriti.
7. Should it be said that (the passage does) not (refer to Brahman) on account
of the smallness of the abode, and on account of the denotation of that (viz.
minuteness of the being meditated on); we say no, because (Brahman) has thus
to be meditated upon, and because (in the same passage) it is said to be like
8. Should it be said that there is attainment of fruition (of pleasure and pain);
we reply, not so, on account of difference.
9. The eater (is the highest Self) on account of there being taken all that
is movable and immovable.
10. And on account of the topic of the whole section.
11. The 'two entered into the cave' are the two Selfs; on account of this being
12. And on account of distinctive qualities.
13. (The Person) within the eye (is the highest Self) on account of suitability.
14. And on account of the statement as to abode, and so on.
15. And on account of the text referring only to what is characterised by pleasure.
16. For that very reason that (ether) is Brahman.
17. And on account of the statement of the way of him who has heard the Upanishads.
18. Not any other, on account of non-permanency of abode, and of impossibility.
19. The internal Ruler (referred to) in the clauses with respect to the gods,
with respect to the worlds, &c. (is the highest Self), because the attributes
of that are designated.
20. And not that which Smriti assumes, on account of the declaration of qualities
not belonging to that; nor the embodied one.
21. For both also speak of it as something different.
22. That which possesses the qualities of invisibility, &c., on account
of the declaration of attributes.
23. Not the two others, on account of distinction and statement of difference.
24. And on account of the description of its form.
25. Vaisvânara (is the highest Self), on account of the distinctions qualifying
the common term.
26. That which the text refers to is an inferential mark--thus.
27. Should it be said that it is not so, on account of the word, &c., and
on account of the abiding within; we say, no; on account of meditation being
taught thus, on account of impossibility; and because they read of him as person.
28. For the same reasons not the divinity and the element.
29. Gaimini thinks that there is no objection to (the word 'Agni') directly
(denoting the highest Self).
30. On account of definiteness; thus Âsmarathya opines.
31. On account of meditation, Bâdari thinks.
32. On account of imaginative identification, thus Gaimini thinks; for thus
the text declares.
33. Moreover, they record him in that.
1. The abode of
heaven, earth, &c. (is the highest Self), on account of terms which are
2. And on account of its being declared that to which the released have to resort.
3. Not that which is inferred, on account of the absence of terms denoting it,
and (so also not) the bearer of the Prânas (i. e. the individual soul).
4. On account of the declaration of difference.
5. On account of the subject-matter.
6. And on account of abiding and eating.
7. The bhűman (is the highest Self), as the instruction about it is additional
to that about serenity.
8. And on account of the suitability of the attributes.
9. The Imperishable (is Brahman), on account of its supporting that which is
the end of ether.
10. And this (supporting) (springs) from command.
11. And on account of the exclusion of (what is of) another nature (than Brahman).
12. On account of his being designated as the object of seeing, he (i.e. the
highest Self) (is that object).
13. The small (ether) (is Brahman), on account of the subsequent (arguments).
14. On account of the going and of the word; for thus it is seen; and (there
is) an inferential sign.
15. And on account of there being observed in that (small ether), supporting
which is a greatness of that (i. e. Brahman).
16. And on account of the settled meaning.
17. If it be said that on account of reference to the other one he is meant;
we say no, on account of impossibility.
18. Should it be said that from a subsequent passage (it appears that the individual
Soul is meant); rather (the soul) in so far as its true nature has become manifest.
19. And the reference has a different meaning.
20. If it be said, owing to the scriptural declaration of smallness; that has
21. And on account of the imitation of that.
22. The same is declared by Smriti also.
23. On account of the term, the one measured.
24. But with reference to the heart, men being qualified.
25. Also beings above them (i.e. men), Bâdarâyana thinks, on account of possibility.
26. If it be said that there results a contradiction to work; we deny this,
on account of the observation of the assumption of several (bodies).
27. If it be said (that a contradiction will result) with regard to words; we
say no, since beings originate from them (as appears) from perception and inference.
28. And for this very reason eternity (of the Veda).
29. And on account of the equality of names and forms there is no contradiction,
even in the renovation (of the world); as appears from--Sruti and Smriti.
30. On account of the impossibility (of qualification for the madhuvidyâ, &c.)
(Gaimini maintains the non-qualification (of gods, &c.).
31. And on account of (meditating on the part of the gods) being in the Light.
33. (That) grief of him (arose), this is intimated by his (Gânasruti's) resorting
to him (Raikva) on hearing a disrespectful speech about himself.
34. And on account of (Gânasruti ) kshattriya-hood being understood.
35. On account of the inferential sign further on, together with Kaitraratha.
36. On account of the reference to ceremonial purifications, and on account
of the declaration of their absence.
37. And on account of the procedure, on the ascertainment of the non-being of
38. And on account of the prohibition of hearing, studying, and performance
of (Vedic) matter.
39. And on account of Smriti.
40. On account of the trembling.
41. On account of light being seen (declared in the text).
42. The ether, on account of the designation of something different, and so
43. On account of difference in deep sleep and departing.
44. And on account of such words as Lord..
1. If it be said
that some (mention) that which rests on Inference; we deny this because (the
form) refers to what is contained in the simile of the body; and (this the text)
2. But the subtle (body), on account of its capability.
3. (Matter in its subtle state) subserves an end, on account of its dependence
on him (viz. the Supreme Person).
4. And on account of there being no statement of its being an object of knowledge.
5. Should it be said that (the text) declares (it); we say, not so; for the
intelligent Self (is meant), on account of subject-matter.
6. And of three only there is this mention and question.
7. And as in the case of the 'Great.'
8. On account of there being no special characteristic; as in the case of the
9. But she begins with light; for thus some read in their text.
10. And on account of the teaching of formation (i.e. creation) there is no
contradiction; as in the case of the honey.
11. Not from the mention of the number even, on account of the diversity and
of the excess.
12. The breath, and so on, on the ground of the complementary passage.
13. By light, food not being (mentioned in the text) of some.
14. And on account of (Brahman) as described being declared to be the cause
with regard to Ether, and so on.
15. From connexion.
16. Because it denotes the world.
17. Should it be said that this is not so on account of the inferential marks
of the individual soul and the chief vital air; we reply that this has been
18. But Gaimini thinks that it has another purport, on account of the question
and answer; and thus some also.
19. On account of the connected meaning of the sentences.
20. (It is) a mark indicating that the promissory statement is proved; thus
21. Because (the soul) when it will depart is such; thus Audulomi thinks.
22. On account of (Brahman's) abiding (within the individual soul); thus Kâsakritsna
23. (Brahman is) the material cause on account of this not being in conflict
with the promissory statements and the illustrative instances.
24. And on account of the statement of reflection.
25. And on account of both being directly declared.
26. On account of (the Self) making itself.
27. Owing to modification.
28. And because it is called the womb.
29. Herewith all (texts) are explained, explained.
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