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Brahma Sutras
Translated. by George Thibaut

Adhyayas:    First    Second    Third    Forth

Second Adhyâya

First Pâda.

1. If it be said that there would result the fault of there being no room for (certain) Smritis: (we reply) 'no,' because there would result the fault of want of room for other Smritis.

2. And on account of the non-perception (of truth on the part) of others.

3. Hereby the Yoga is refuted.

4. Not, on account of the difference of character of that; and its being such (appears) from Scripture.

5. But (there is) denotation of the superintending (deities), on account of distinction and entering.

6. But it is seen.

7. If it be said that (the effect is) non-existing; we say no, there being a mere denial.

8. On account of such consequences in reabsorption (the Vedânta-texts would be) inappropriate.

9. Not so; as there are parallel instances.

10. And on account of the objections to his view.

11. Also in consequence of the ill-foundedness of reasoning.

12. Should it be said that inference is to be carried on in a different way; (we reply that) thus also it follows that (the objection raised) is not got rid of.

13. Thereby also the remaining (theories) which are not comprised (within the Veda) are explained.

14. If it be said that from (Brahman) becoming an enjoyer, there follows non-distinction (of Brahman and the individual soul); we reply--it may be as in ordinary life.

15. The non-difference (of the world) from that (viz. Brahman) follows from what begins with the word ârambhana.

16. And because (the cause) is perceived in the existence of the effect.

17. And on account of the existence of that which is posterior.

18. If it be said 'not, on account of the designation of the (effect as the) non-existent; we reply, not so, on account (of such designation being due to) another attribute, (as appears) from the complementary passage, from Reasoning, and from another Vedic text.

19. And like a piece of cloth.

20. And as the different vital airs.

21. From the designation of the 'other' (as non-different from Brahman) there result (Brahman's) not creating what is beneficial, and other imperfections.

22. But (Brahman is) additional, on account of the declaration of difference.

23. And as in the analogous case of stones and the like, there is impossibility of that.

24. Should it be said that (it is) not, on account of the observation of employment; we say, not so; for as in the case of milk.

25. And as in the case of the gods and so on, in (their) world.

26. Or the consequence of the entire (Brahman entering into the effect), and stultification of (Brahman's) being devoid of parts.

27. But on account of Scripture; (Brahman's possession of various powers) being founded upon the word.

28. And thus in the Self; for (there are) manifold (powers).

29. And on account of the defects of his view also.

30. And (the divinity is) endowed with all powers, because that is seen.

31. Not, on account of the absence of organs; this has been explained (before).

32. (Brahman is) not (the cause); on account of (the world) having the nature of what depends on a motive.

33. But (it is) mere sport, as in ordinary life.

34. Not inequality and cruelty, on account of there being regard; for so (Scripture) declares.

35. If it be said 'not so, on account of non-distinction of deeds'; we say, 'not so, on account of beginninglessness'; this is reasonable, and it is also observed.

36. And because all the attributes are proved (to be present in Brahman).

Second Pâda

1. Not that which is inferred, on account of the impossibility of construction, and on account of activity.

2. If it be said--like milk or water; there also (intelligence guides).

3. And because from the independence (of the Pradhâna) there would follow the non-existence of what is different (from creation, i.e. of the pralaya condition).

4. Nor like grass and so on; because (milk) does not exist elsewhere.

5. And if you say--as the man and the stone; thus also.

6. And on account of the impossibility of the relation of principal (and subordinate) matter.

7. And if another inference be made (the result remains unchanged), on account of (the Pradhâna) being destitute of the power of a knowing subject.

8. And even if it be admitted; on account of the absence of a purpose.

9. And (it is) objectionable on account of the contradictions.

10. Or in the same way as the big and long from the short and the atomic.

11. On both assumptions also there is no motion, and thence non-being (of the origination of the world).

12. And because owing to the acknowledgment of samavâya, there results a regressus in infinitum from equality.

13. And because (the world also) would thus be eternal.

14. And on account of (the atoms) having colour and so on, the reverse (takes place); as it is observed.

15. And as there are objections in both cases.

16. And as it is not accepted, it is altogether disregarded.

17. Even on the aggregate with its two causes, there is non-establishment of that.

18. If it be said that (this) is to be explained through successive causality; we say 'no,' on account of their not being the causes of aggregation.

19. And on account of the cessation of the preceding one on the origination of the subsequent one.

20. There not being (a cause), there results contradiction of the admitted principle; otherwise simultaneousness.

21. There is non-establishment of pratisankhyâ and apratisankhyâ destruction, on account of non-interruption.

22. And on account of the objections presenting themselves in either case.

23. And in the case of space also, on account of there being no difference.

24. And on account of recognition.

25. Not from non-entity, this not being observed.

26. And thus there would be accomplishment on the part of non-active people also.

27. Not non-existence, on account of consciousness.

28. And on account of difference of nature (they are) not like dreams.

29. The existence (is) not, on account of the absence of perception.

30. And on account of its being unproved in every way.

31. Not so, on account of the impossibility in one.

33. And likewise non-entireness of the Self.

34. Nor also is there non-contradiction from paryâya; on account of change, and so on.

35. And on account of the endurance of the final (size), and the (resulting) permanency of both; there is no difference.

36. (The system) of the Lord (must be disregarded), on account of inappropriateness.

37. And on account of the impossibility of rulership.

38. If you say, as in the case of the organs; we deny this, on account of enjoyment and so on.

39. Finiteness or absence of omniscience.

40. On account of the impossibility of origination.

41. And there is not (origination) of the instrument from the agent.

42. Or, if they are of the nature of that which is knowledge and so on, there is no contradiction to that (i.e. the Bhâgavata doctrine).

43. And on account of contradiction.

Third Pâda

1. Not Ether; on account of the absence of scriptural statement.

2. But there is.

3. It has a secondary sense, on account of impossibility and of the text.

4. There may be (a double sense) of the one (word), as in the case of the word 'Brahman.'

5. The non-abandonment of the promissory statement (results) from non-difference.

6. (As follows also) from (other) texts.

7. But the division (origination) extends over all effects; as in ordinary life.

8. Hereby air is explained.

9. But there is non-origination of that which is (only); on account of impossibility.

10. Fire (is produced) thence, for thus Scripture declares.

11. Water (from fire).

12. Earth (from water).

13. Earth on account of the subject-matter, the colour, and other texts.

14. But he; from the inferential mark supplied by their reflection.

15. But the order of succession (which is stated) in reverse order (of the true one) is possible, (only if the origination of all effects is) thence (i.e. from Brahman).

16. If it be said that knowledge and mind (which are mentioned) between (breath and the elements) (are stated) in order of succession, owing to an inferential mark of this; we say, not so, on account of non-difference.

17. But that which abides in the things movable and immovable, i.e. the terms denoting those things, are non-secondary (i.e. of primary denotative power, viz. with regard to Brahman); since (their denotative power) is effected by the being of that (i.e. Brahman).

18. Not the Self, on account of scriptural statement, and on account of the eternity (which results) from them.

19. For this very reason (the individual soul is) a knower.

20. On account of (its) passing out, moving and returning.

21. And on account of the latter two (being effected) through the Self.

22. If it be said that (the soul) is not atomic, on account of scriptural statement of (what is) not that; we say no, on account of the other one being the topic.

23. And on account of the very word, and of measure.

24. There is no contradiction, as in the case of sandal-ointment.

25. Should it be said (that this is not so) on account of specialisation of abode; we say no, on account of the acknowledgment (of a place of the Self), viz. in the heart.

26. Or on account of its quality as light.

27. There is distinction as in the case of smell; and thus Scripture declares.

28. On account of the separate statement.

29. But (the Self) is designated as that because it has that quality (viz. knowledge) for its essential quality; as in the case of the intelligent (prâgńa) Self.

30. And there is no objection, since (the quality of knowledge) exists wherever the Self is; this being observed.

31. Since there may be manifestation of that which exists; as in the case of virile power and so on.

32. There would result permanent consciousness or non-consciousness, or else limitative restriction to either.

33. (The soul is) an agent, on account of Scripture (thus) having a purport.

34. On account of taking and the declaration as to its moving about.

35. And on account of the designation (of the Self as the agent) in actions. If not so, there would be change of grammatical expression.

36. (There would be) absence of definite rule, as in the case of consciousness.

37. On account of the inversion of power.

38. And on account of the absence of samâdhi.

39. And as the carpenter, in both ways.

40. But from the highest, this being declared by Scripture.

41. But with a view to the efforts made (the Lord makes the soul act) on account of the (thus resulting) non-meaninglessness of injunctions and prohibitions and the rest.

42. (The soul is) a part, on account of the declarations of difference and otherwise; some also record (that Brahman is of) the nature of slaves, fishermen, and so on.

43. And on account of the mantra.

44. Moreover it is so stated in Smriti.

45. But as in the case of light and so on. Not so is the highest.

46. And Smriti texts declare this.

47. Permission and exclusion (result) from connexion with a body; as in the case of light and so on.

48. And on account of non-connectedness there is no confusion.

49. And it is a mere apparent argument.

50. On account of the non-determination of the adrishtas.

51. And it is thus also in the case of purposes and so on.

52. Should it be said (that that is possible) owing to the difference of place; we deny this, on account of (all upâdhis) being within (all places).

Fourth Pâda

1. Thus the prânas.

2. (The scriptural statement of the plural) is secondary, on account of impossibility; and since (the highest Self) is declared before that.

3. On account of speech having for its antecedent that.

4. (They are seven) on account of the going of the seven and of specification.

5. But the hands and so on also; (since they assist the soul) abiding (in the body). Hence (it is) not so.

6. And (they are) minute.

7. And the best.

8. Neither air nor function, on account of its being stated separately.

9. But like the eye and the rest, on account of being taught with them, and for other reasons.

10. And there is no objection on account of its not having an activity (karana); for (Scripture) thus declares.

11. It is designated as having five functions like mind.

12. And (it is) minute.

13. But the rule (over the prânas) on the part of Fire and the rest, together with him to whom the prâna belong (i.e. the soul), is owing to the thinking of that (viz. the highest Self); on account of scriptural statement.

14. And on account of the eternity of this.

15. They, with the exception of the best, are organs, on account of being so designated.

16. On account of scriptural statement of difference, and on account of difference of characteristics.

17. But the making of names and forms (belongs) to him who renders tripartite, on account of scriptural teaching.

18. Flesh is of earthy nature; in the case of the two others also according to the text.

19. But on account of their distinctive nature there is that designation, that designation.

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