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Brahma Sutras
Translated. by George Thibaut

Adhyayas:    First    Second    Third    Forth

Third Adhyāya

First Pāda

1. In obtaining another of that, it goes enveloped, (as appears) from question and explanation.

2. But on account of (water) consisting of the three elements; on account of predominance.

3. And on account of the going of the prānas.

4. If it be said (that it is not so) on account of scriptural statement as to going to Agni and the rest; we say no, on account of the secondary nature (of the statement).

5. Should it be said, on account of absence of mention in the first (reply); we say no, for just that (is meant), on the ground of fitness.

6. 'On account of this not being stated by Scripture'; not so, on account of those who perform sacrifices and so on being understood.

7. Or it is metaphorical, on account of their not knowing the Self. For thus Scripture declares.

8. On the passing away of the works, with a remainder, according to Scripture and Smriti; as it went and not so.

9. 'On account of conduct'; not so, since (karana) connotes works; thus Kārshnāgini thinks.

10. 'There is purposelessness'; not so, on account of the dependence on that.

11. But only good and evil works, thus Bādari thinks.

12. Of those also who do not perform sacrifices (the ascent) is declared by Scripture.

13. But of the others having enjoyed in Samyamana, there is ascent and descent; as such a course is declared.

14. Smriti texts also declare this.

15. Moreover there are seven.

16. On account of his activity there also, there is no contradiction.

17. But, of knowledge and work--as these are the leading topics.

18. Not in the case of the third (place), as it is thus perceived.

19. It moreover is recorded, in the world.

20. And on account of its being seen.

21. The third term includes that which springs from heat.

22. There is entering into similarity of being with those, there being a reason.

23. Not very long; on account of special statement.

24. Into (plants) animated by other souls, because the statement is as in the previous cases.

25. It is unholy. Not so, on the ground of Scripture.

26. After that conjunction with him who performs the act of generation.

27. From the yoni the body.

Second Pāda

1. In the intermediate sphere the creation (is effected by the soul); for (Scripture) says (so).

2. And some (state the soul to be) the shaper; and sons, and so on.

3. But it is mere Māyā; on account of the true nature (of the soul) not being fully manifested.

4. But owing to the wish of the highest it is hidden; for from that are its bondage and the opposite state.

5. Or that (results) also from connexion with the body.

6. And it is suggestive, according to Scripture; this the experts also declare.

7. The absence of that takes place in the nādīs and in the Self, according to scriptural statement.

8. Hence the awaking from that.

9. But the same, on account of work, remembrance, text, and injunction.

10. In the swooning person there is half-combination; this being the remaining (hypothesis).

11. Not on account of place even (is there any imperfection) of the Highest; for everywhere (it is described) as having twofold characteristics.

12. Should it be said 'on account of difference'; not so, because with reference to each the text says what is not that.

13. Some also (teach) thus.

14. For (Brahman is) without form merely, since it is the principal agent with regard to that.

15. And in the same way as (a Brahman) consisting of light; (the texts thus) not being devoid of meaning.

16. And (the text) says so much only.

17. (This Scripture) also shows, and it is also stated in Smriti.

18. For this very reason comparisons, such as reflected images of the sun and the like.

19. But because it is not apprehended like water, there is no equality.

20. The participation (on Brahman's part) in increase and decrease, due to its abiding within (is denied); on account of the appropriateness of both (comparisons), and because thus it is seen.

21. For the text denies the previously declared so-muchness; and declares more than that.

22. That (is) unmanifested; for (this Scripture) declares.

23. Also in perfect conciliation, according to Scripture and Smriti.

24. And there is non-difference (of the intention of Brahman's distinguishing attributes), as in the case of light; and the light (is) intuited as constituting Brahman's essential nature by repetition of the practice (of meditation).

25. Hence (Brahman is distinguished) by what is infinite; for thus the characteristics (hold good).

26. But on account of twofold designation, as the snake and its coils.

27. Or else like light and its abode, both being fire.

28. Or else in the manner stated above.

29. And on account of denial.

30. (There is something) higher than that; on account of the designations of bridge, measure, connexion, and difference.

31. But on account of resemblance.

32. It subserves the purpose of thought; as in the case of the feet.

33. Owing to difference of place, as in the case of light, and so on.

34. And on account of possibility.

35. Thus, from the denial of anything else.

36. The omnipresence (possessed) by that, (understood) from the declaration of extent.

37. From thence the reward; on account of possibility.

38. And on account of scriptural declaration.

39. For the same reasons Gaimini (thinks it to be) religious action.

40. But the former, Bādarāyana (thinks), on account of the designation (of deities) as the cause.

Third Pāda

1. What is understood from all the Vedānta-texts (is one), on account of the non-difference of injunction and the rest.

2. If it be said (that the vidyās are not one) on account of difference, we deny this, since even in one (vidyā there may be repetition).

3. For (the sirovrata) concerns the mode of the study of the Veda; also on account of (that rite) being a heading in the samākāra; and the restriction is like that of the libations.

4. Scripture also declares this.

5. (Meditation) thus being equal, there is combination (of gunas); on account of non-difference of purport in the case of what subserves injunction.

6. If it be said that there is difference on account of the text; we say no; on account of non-difference.

7. Or not, on account of difference of subject-matter; as in the case of the attribute of being higher than the high, and so on.

8. If that be declared on account of name; (we object, since) that is also (where the objects of injunction differ).

9. And (this is) appropriate, on account of the extension.

10. On account of non-difference of everything, those elsewhere.

11. Bliss and other qualities, as belonging to the subject of the qualities.

12. Such qualities as having joy for its head, and so on, are not established, for if there were difference (of members) there would be increase and decrease.

13. But the others, on account of equality with the thing.

14. For meditation, owing to the absence of purpose.

15. And on account of the term 'Self.'

16. There is reference to the Self, as in other places; on account of the subsequent passage.

17. If it be said 'on account of connexion'; it may be so, on account of ascertainment.

18. The new (thing is enjoined); on account of the statement of what has to be done.

19. And (the qualities) thus being equal, on account of non-difference.

20. On account of connexion, thus elsewhere also.

21. Or not so, on account of difference.

22. The text also declares this.

23. And for the same reason the holding together and the pervading the sky.

24. And although (they both be) meditations on man; on account of others not being recorded.

25. On account of the difference of sense of piercing and so on.

26. But in the case of the getting rid of (it has to be combined with the obtaining), as it is supplementary to statements of obtaining; as in the case of the kusas, the metres, the praise, and the singing. This has been explained.

27. At departing; there being nothing to be reached. For thus others (also declare).

28. As it is desired; on account of there being no contradiction of either.

29. There is meaning of the soul's going (only) on the twofold hypothesis; for otherwise there is contradiction.

30. (That assumption) is justified; on account of the perception of things which are marks of that; as in ordinary experience.

31. Of those who have a certain office there is subsistence (of their works) as long as the office lasts.

32. There is no restriction (since) all (have to go on that path). (Thus) there is non-contradiction of sacred text and Smriti.

33. But the conceptions of the Imperishable are to be comprised (in all meditations). There being equality (of the Brahman to be meditated on) and (those conceptions) existing (in Brahman); as in the case of what belongs to the upasad. This has been explained.

34. So much; on account of reflection.

35. Should it be said that (the former reply refers) to that Self to which the aggregate of material things belongs (since) otherwise the difference (of the two replies) could not be accounted for; we say--no; as in the case of instruction.

36. There is interchange (of ideas), for the texts distinguish; as in other cases.

37. For one and the same (highest divinity), called the 'truly being,' and so on (is the subject of that meditation).

38. Wishes and the rest, here and there; (as is known from the abode, and so on).

39. On account of emphasis there is non-omission.

40. In the case of him who has approached (Brahman); just on that account, this being declared by the text.

41. There is non-restriction of determination, because this is seen; for there is a separate fruit, viz. non-obstruction.

42. Just as in the case of the offerings. This has been explained.

43. On account of the plurality of indicatory marks; for that (proof) is stronger. This also is declared (in the Pūrva Mīmāmsā).

44. There is option with regard to what precedes (i.e. the altar made of bricks) on account of subject-matter, and hence there is action; as in the case of the mānasa cup.

45. And on account of the transfer.

46. But it is a meditation only, on account of assertion and what is seen.

47. And on account of the greater strength of direct statement, and so on, there is no refutation.

48. On account of connexions and the rest, as in the case of the separateness of other cognitions. And this is seen (elsewhere also); as declared (in the Pūrva Mīmāmsā).

49. Not so, on account of this being observed on account of similarity also; as in the case of Death; for (the person in yonder orb) does not occupy the worlds (of Death).

50. And by a subsequent (Brāhmana) also the 'being of such a kind' of the word (is proved). But the connexion is on account of plurality.

51. Some, on account of the existence of a Self within a body.

52. But this is not so, (but rather) difference; since it is of the being of that; as in the case of intuition.

53. But those (meditations) which are connected with members (of sacrifices) are not (restricted) to (particular) sākhās, but rather (belong) to all sākhās.

54. Or there is no contradiction as in the case of mantras and the rest.

55. There is pre-eminence of plenitude, as in the case of the sacrifice; for thus Scripture shows.

56. (The meditations are) separate, on account of the difference of words, and so on.

57. Option, on account of the non-difference of result.

58. But meditations aiming at objects of desire may, according to one's liking, be cumulated or not; on account of the absence of the former reason.

59. They belong to the constituent members, as the bases.

60. And on account of injunction.

61. On account of rectification.

62. And on account of the declaration of a quality being common (to all the Vedas).

63. Rather not, as the text does not declare their going together.

64. And because (Scripture) shows it.

Fourth Pāda

1. The benefit to man results from thence, on account of scriptural statement; thus Bādarāyana thinks.

2. On account of (the Self) standing in a complementary relation, they are arthavādas, as in other cases; thus Gaimini opines.

3. On account of (such) conduct being seen.

4. On account of direct scriptural statement.

5. On account of the taking hold together.

6. On account of injunction for such a one.

7. On account of definite rule.

8. But on account of the teaching of the different one, Badarāyana's (view is valid); as this is seen.

9. But the declarations are equal.

10. (It is) non-comprehensive.

11. There is distribution, as in the case of the hundred.

12. Of him who has merely read the Veda.

13. Not so, on account of non-specification.

14. Or the permission is for the purpose of glorification.

15. Some also, by proceeding according to their liking.

16. And destruction.

17. And of him who is chaste; for in Scripture (this is declared).

18. A reference (only) Gaimini (holds them to be), on account of absence of injunction; for (Scripture) forbids.

19. It is to be accomplished, Bādarayana holds, on account of scriptural statement of equality.

20. Or an injunction, as in the case of the carrying.

21. If it be said that they are mere glorification, on account of their reference; not so, on account of the newness.

22. And on account of the words denoting becoming.

23. Should it be said that (the stories told in the Upanishads) are for the purpose of the Pāriplava; not so, since (certain stories) are specified.

24. This follows also from the textual connexion (of those stories with injunctions).

25. For this very reason there is no need of the lighting of the fire and so on.

26. And there is need of all (works), on account of the scriptural statement of sacrifices and the rest; as in the case of the horse.

27. But all the same he must be possessed of calmness, subjection of the senses, &c., since those are enjoined as auxiliaries to that, and must necessarily be accomplished.

28. And there is permission of all food in the case of danger of life; on account of this being seen.

29. And on account of non-sublation.

30. This is said in Smriti also.

31. And hence also a scriptural passage as to non-proceeding according to liking.

32. The works of the āsramas also, on account of their being enjoined.

33. And on account of co-operativeness.

34. In any case they are the same, on account of twofold inferential signs.

35. And Scripture also declares (knowledge) not to be overpowered.

36. Also in the case of those outside, as this is seen.

37. Smriti also states this.

38. And there is the promotion (of knowledge) through special acts (of duty).

39. But better than that is the other also on account of an inferential mark.

40. But of him who has become that there is no becoming not that, according to Gaimini also, on account of (Scripture) restraining from the absence of the forms of that.

41. Nor the (expiatory performance) described in the chapter treating of qualification; that being impossible on account of the Smriti referring to such lapse.

42. A minor one, thus some; (and hence they hold) the existence (of expiation), as in the case of eating. This has been explained.

43. But in either case (such men) stand outside; on account of Smriti and custom.

44. By the Lord (of the sacrifice), since Scripture declares a fruit--thus Ātreya thinks.

45. (They are) the priest's work, Audulomi thinks; since for that he is engaged.

46. There is injunction of other auxiliary means for him who is such, as in the case of injunction and so on; (the term mauna denoting) according to an alternative meaning a third something.

47. But on account of the existence (of knowledge) in all, there is winding up with the householder.

48. On account of the others also being taught, in the same way as the condition of the Muni.

49. Not manifesting itself; on account of the connexion.

50. What belongs to this world, there being no obstruction at hand; as this is seen.

51. In the same way there is non-determination with regard to what has Release for its result; that condition being ascertained, that condition being ascertained.

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