Translation and Notes by B.
K. Laheri, F.T.S.
ARJUNA, after the successful issue of the battle of Kuruksetra, amidst the
pleasures of rank, riches, and prosperity, had forgotten the priceless
instructions imparted to him by Sri Krishna, on the eve of that memorable
battle. He now asks Kesava again to propound to him the secrets of the
1, 2 & 3.
O Kesava, [ Kesava means the manifested Logos, the union of Visnu, Brahmă and
Mahesvara, or the combined Sattva, Rajas, and Tamas Gunas. The word "Kesava"
is from Ka-isa-va] tell me the knowledge of that Brahman that is One, and
without its like and rival, without Upădhi (attributes) beyond the Akăsa,
source of all purity, that which cannot be approached by argument, or reached by
conception, the unknowable and the unknown, and that which is absolutely free
from births and deaths. O Kesava, impart to me the knowledge of that which is
Absolute, the only above ode Eternal Peace and Purity, the Instrumental (Nimitta)
and Material (Upădăna) cause of the Universe, though itself causeless and free
from all connection. Tell me, O Kesava, the knowledge of that which dwells in
every heart, and that which combines the fact of knowledge and the thing
knowable in Itself.
SRI BHAGAVAN SAID:
4. O thou long-armed one, thou who art the crest-jewel of the Pandu dynasty, O
Arjuna, thou art most intelligent, because thou hast asked me a question which
is at once most sublime and magnificent - to attain the knowledge of the
boundless Tattvas. Hear, therefore, O Arjuna, attentively what I wish to say on
5. He is called Brahman, who, devoid of all desires, and by the process of Yoga,
sits in that state of meditation in which he assimilates his own Self-mantra (Pranava
or Aum) with the Hamsa (Paramătma).
6. For the human being, the attainment of the state of Hamsa (I am He), within
his own limits, is considered the highest jnana. That which remains merely a
passive witness between the Hamsa and Non-Hamsa, i.e., the Paramătman and the
destructible portion of the human being, is the Aksara Purusa in the form of
Kutasha-Caitanya (Atma-Buddhi). When the knower finds and sees this Akara Purusa
in him, he is saved from all future troubles of birth and death in this world.
7. The word "Kăkin" is the compound of ka + aka + in. The first
syllable Ka means happiness, the second Aka means misery, and the third In
denotes possessing: therefore one that possesses happiness and misery - the Jiva
- is called "Kăkin". Again the vowel a at the end of the syllable Ka
is the conscious manifestation of Mula-Prakrti or the Jiva form of the Brahman;
therefore when this a disappears, there remains only the K, which is the One
great indivisible Bliss - Brahman.
8. He who is always able to retain his life-breath (Prănavăyu) within himself,
both at the time of walking and rest, can extend the period of his life over a
9. Conceive so much of the manifested Akăsa (sky) as can be brought within the
range of one's own mental view, as one undivided Brahman then merge the Atman
into it, and it, into your own self; this done, i.e., when the Atman is made one
with the Akăsa, think of nothing else - as moon, stars, etc. - in the sky. [
This is the Nirvikalpa Samădhi - the subjective concentration of the mind, in
which both the mind and life-breath become still like a flame without air.
There are two well-known processes of practising Yoga: viz., to concentrate the
mind (a) at the point where the nose ends, and (b) where the root of the nose
begins. The result in both cases is the same as are the further processes of
practice, but in either case the instruction of a Guru is necessary, otherwise
it is absolutely impossible to succeed. ]
10. Such a seeker of Brahman, after fixing his mind as aforesaid, and shutting
himself out of all objective knowledge (Ajnăna), should hold fast the support
of unchangeable Jnăna, and think of the One Indivisible Brahman in the inner
and outer Akăsa, that exists at the end of the nose, and into which the
11. Freed from both nostrils where the life-breath disappears, there (i.e., in
the heart) fix thy mind, O Părtha, [ another name of Arjuna. ] and meditate
upon the All-Supreme Isvara.
12. Think of the Siva, there, as devoid of all conditions of life, pure but
without lustre (Prabhă), mindless, Buddhi-less.
13. The signs of Samădhi are the negation of all positive conditions of life
and the complete enthralment or subjugation of all objective thoughts.
14. Although the body of the meditator may now and hen become somewhat unsteady
at the time of meditation, yet he is to consider that the Paramătma is
immovable. This is the sign of the Samădhi.
15. He that considers the Paramătman as without Mătra, i.e., neither short nor
long in metre, soundless, unconnected with vowels, and beyond the Bindu, (Point)
i.e., Anusvara, (which produces a nasal sound), beyond the Năda, i.e., the
voice that rises from the throat, etc., and beyond the Kalăs, i.e., the
different phases of this sound, is the real knower of the Vedas.
16. He that has acquired Vijnăna, (the Supreme Knowledge) by the aid of Jnana,
i.e.., the knowledge derived from books of Philosophy and instruction from a
Guru, and has learned to place the object of this knowledge in his heart, and he
that has acquired peace of mind, such a person requires no Yoga for further
practice, and no meditation for further conception.
17. The syllable (Aum) with which the Vedas begin, which figures in the middle
of the Vedas, and with which the Vedas end, unites Prakrti with its Own Self;
but that which is beyond this Prakrti-united-Pranava is Mahesvara.
18. A boat is necessary until one gets to the other side of the river, but when
a man once crosses the stream, the boat is no longer necessary for his purpose.
19. As a husbandman throws away the husks, after thrashing out the corn, so does
also an intelligent person give up the study of books after he has attained
knowledge from them.
20. As light is necessary to find the wished-for object in a dark chamber, but
when once the object is found, the light is put aside as unnecessary: so also
when the Object of the Supreme Knowledge, that is kept hidden by the illusions
of Maya, is once found out by the torch of Knowledge, the Knowledge itself is
afterwards put aside as unnecessary.
21. As milk is not necessary for a person who is already satisfied with the
drink of nectar, so also Vedas are not required for man who has already known
the Supreme Deity.
22. Thrice fortunate is the Yoga who has thus satiated his thirst by the nectar
of knowledge; he is henceforth bound to no Karma, as he has become the knower of
23. He that has known the unspeakable Pranava as the one continuous sound of a
big gong, or like one unbroken thread (Dhără) of oil, without division and
separation, understand the real meaning of the Vedas.
24. He, that uses his own Atman as one Arani (a piece of wood that produces fire
when rubbed), and Pranava as the other and constantly rubs the two together, he
will very soon see the hidden fire thus produced by the friction of the two,
even as he produces the fire that is hidden in the bosom of the Arani
25. As long as one does not see within himself that sublime Rupa which is purer
than purity itself, and which beams forth like a smokeless light, he should
continue his meditations with a steady mind, fixing his thoughts upon that Rupa
26. The Jîvătman, although (considered to be) very distant from Paramătman,
is still very near to it; and although it has a body, still it is without body;
the Jîvătman itself is pure, omnipotent and self-evident.
27. Although it (Jîvătman) is (considered to be) in the body, still it is not
in the body; it is not affected by any change of the body, nor does it take part
in any enjoyment appertaining to the body nor can it be bound down or
conditioned by anything that binds the body.
28 & 29. All oil exists in the seed (i.e., pervading the whole of it) and
butter (Ghrta) in cheese (Ksîra, i.e., milk boiled and thickened). As smell
exists in the flower, and juice in fruits, so does the Jîvătman which
permeates the whole universe, also exists in the human body. Like the fire
hidden in the bosom of wood, and like the air that pervades the whole limitless
Akăsa, Atman, the dweller in the caves of Manas, unseen and unperceived,
becomes its own expressor, and walks in the Akăsa of the human heart.
30. Though the Jîvătman dwells in the heart,yet it has its abode in the mind;
and though dwelling in the heart it is itself mindless. The Yogî, who sees such
an Atman in his own heart through the help of his own mind, gradually becomes a
31. He that has been able to make his mind entirely unsupported and one with the
Akăsa, and to know the unchangeable One, his state is called the state of Samădhi.
32. Though living upon air he that daily practises Samădhi to make himself
happy with the drink of the Yoga-nectar, becomes able to destroy the destroyer.
33. He that contemplates the Atman as No-thing above, No-thing below, No-thing
in the middle, and No-thing all round, his state is called the state of Samădhi.
(That is Nirălamba, non-supported or self-supported samădhi) The Yogî who
thus realizes the No-thingness of the Atman becomes free from all virtues and
34. Tell me, O Kesava, how Yogîs should meditate upon the colourless and
formless Brahman, when the mind is unable to think upon that which it has never
seen, and that which can be seen is material, and consequently subject to
SRI BHAGAVAN SAID:
35. That which is full above, full below, full in the middle, and full all
round, is the All-full Atman and he that contemplates the Ătman thus, is said
to be in the state of Samădhi.
36. Tell me, O Kesava, how the Yogî is to practise meditation when the Sălamba
which thou has just described is unreal and that which is Nirălamba means No-thingness?
SRI BHAGAVAN SAID:
37. He who, after purifying his mind, contemplates the pure Paramătman, and
looks unto his own Self as he one vast undivided whole of the manifested
universe, becomes happy by knowing the Brahman.
38. All the letters have long and short metrical sound, they (letters) are also
joined by the Bindu (Anusvăra-point) and the latter (Bindu) when disjoined,
merges itself into the Năda (sound), but where does the Năda merge.
SRI BHAGAVAN SAID:
39 & 40. Light exists in the voice of the ceaseless Sound, and Manas
(thought) in that light; the Space where the Manas disappears (merges in itself)
is the Supreme Foot of Visnu. Aiming at the unknowable, where the Sound of the
Pranava, led up on high by the Life-Air, disappears, that Space is called the
Supreme Foot of Visnu.
41. Tell me, Okesava, when the Life-Breath leaves this body of five elements,
and the tenement itself is again reduced to them (the elements), where do the
virtue and vice of the man go, and who do they accompany?
SRI BHAGAVAN SAID:
42 & 43. The destiny produced by the result of virtue and vice, the Essence
of the five Bhütas - the mind (lower mind), the five senses, and the
controlling genii (Devatas) of the five organs of Karma, all these by reason of
the Ahankăra (personality) of the mind accompany the Jîva as long as it
remains ignorant of the knowledge of the Tattvas.
44. O Krishna, the Jîva, in the state of Samădhi, leaves all the movable and
immovable objects of the world, but what is it that leaves the Jîva so as to
remove the năma of Jîvaship?
SRI BHAGAVAN SAID:
45. The Prăna Văyu always passes between the mouth and the nostrils; the Akăsa
drinks (absorbs) the Prăna (i.e., when the Jďva leaves the body, after
acquiring the knowledge of the Tattvas); thus when the Prăna is once absorbed
the Jďva does not figure again as Jďva in the arena of this world.
46. The Ăkăsa that pervades the whole Universe also encompasses this objective
world. It is therefore both in and out of everything. Now tell me, O Krishna,
what it is that is beyond this Ăkăsa.
SRI BHAGAVAN SAID:
47. O Arjuna, the Ăkăsa is called Sünya (vacuum), because it means the want
or absence of things or anything. This Ăkăsa has the quality of Sound, but
that which gives it the power of Sound (as emptiness cannot produce any sound),
thought Itself Soundless, is the unknown and unknowable Brahman.
48. It is evident that the letters are pronounced by means of the teeth, lips,
palate, throat, etc.; therefore how can they (letters) be termed indestructible
(Nitya), when their destructibility is apparent on their very face?
SRI BHAGAVAN SAID:
49. That letter is called indestructible which is self-pronunciation, i.e.,
without the efort of any pronunciation, which is neither vowel nor consonant,
which is beyond the eight places of pronunciation, which is not subject to long
or short accents, and which is thoroughly devoid of the Usma Varnas (i.e, the
four letters, S'a, Sa, Sa, Ha, called Usma on account of their pronunciation
depending greatly on the help of Văyu or air - meaning, therefore, subject to
no air or breath).
50. Tell me, O Krishna, how, by closing their external senses and knowing that
Brahman, which lies concealed in every matter and every substance, the Yogins
realize Nirvăna Mukti (i.e., absolute freedom from every kind of bondage)?
SRI BHAGAVAN SAID:
51. The Yogins see the Atman within (them: this they do) when they shut out all
their external senses (not by any physical action); for such a person when he
leaves his body, his Buddhi [ Students must distinguish between the Vedăntic
use of this term and the significance assigned to it in the Esoteric Philosophy.
] (i.e. material intelligence) dies away, and with the death of his Buddhi his
ignorance also dies away (i.e., he becomes spiritual).
52. As long as the Tattvas are not known to a person, so long it is necessary
for him to practise concentration of mind by shutting out external senses, but
once the thoroughly attains the knowledge of the Tattvas he identifies himself
with the Universal Soul.
53. From the nine openings (portals) of the body, the waters of knowledge always
pass out; consequently one cannot know the Brahman unless he becomes as pure as
the Brahman Itself. (Meaning, the powers of mind should be concentrated within,
and not allowed to dwell upon external objects through the nine openings.)
54. Thy body itself is exceedingly impure, but that which takes a body (Jîvătman)
is purity itself; he that has known the difference of the real nature of these
two never troubles himself with the question of purity; for, whose purity,
should he search after? (The Jîvătman is always pure.)
1. Tell me, Okesava, what is the evidence when one, knowing the Brahman as the
all-pervading and all-knowing Paramesvara, believes himself to be one with It?
SRI BHAGAVAN SAID:
2. As water in water, milk in milk and (clarified) butter in butter, so the Jîvătman
and Paramătman become one in union without any distinction and difference.
3. He who with undivided attention endeavours to unite the Jîvătman with the
Paramătman according to the manner prescribed by the Săstras (i.e., Rsis) to
him the all-pervading and universal Light shows itself in due time.
4. When, by acquiring knowledge, the knower becomes the object of knowledge
itself, then he frees himself from all bondage by the virtue of his knowledge,
and what need is there for practice of Yoga or meditation?
SRI BHAGAVAN SAID:
5. He, in whom the light of knowledge always shines forth, has his Buddhi
constantly fixed on the Brahman, and with the fire of supreme knowledge he is
able to burn down the bonds of Karma.
6. Such a knower of the Tattvas, by the realization of the Paramătman that is
pure as the spotless Akăsa and without a second, lives in it (i.e., Paramătman)
without any Upădhi (i.e., being free from all attributes), as water enters into
7. Atman is Süksma like Akăsa , and therefore it cannot be seen by the eyes,
nor can the inner Atman, which is like the Văyu (air) bee seen either; but he
who has been able to fix his Inner-Atman by the Nirălamba Samădhi, and has
learned to direct the course of his external senses inward, can know the unity
of the Atman and Antarătman (Inner Soul or Mind).
8. Wherever a Jnănin may die, and in whatever manner his death may happen, he
becomes one with Atman when he leases his body, even as the Akăsa in the pot
becomes one with its parent Akăsa when the pot is broken, matters not where nor
how it breaks.
9. Know by the process of Anvaya and Vyatireka that the Atman which pervades the
whole body is beyond the the three states of consciousness - waking, dreaming
and dreamless sleep.
[ In the state in which although the material consciousness is absent, still the
presence of the Atman is perceived as a witness to that state, this process is
called the Anvaya; whereas the ignorance by which the man in the Sthula Sarîra,
does not perceive the presence of the Atman, although it is ever-present, is
called Vyatireka. This twofold process exists in each of the above-mentioned
three states of consciousness.
10. He who has been able to dwell with his mind for one moment on a single point
(i.e., to perceive the Light of Caitanya) frees himself from the sins of his
past hundred births. [ This probably means that the "vision of the fields
of eternity" can never be attained until a person is purified from the
"sins" of past births.]
11. On the right side spreads the Pingală Nădi (i.e., from the sole of the
right foot right up to the top of the head where the Sahasrăra exists),[ For
clairvoyant description of the six centres in the human body please see "Chakras"
with Illustrations, by C.W.Leadbeater] it is bright and shining like a great
circle of Fire (or the Sun); this product of virtue (Pingală) is called the
vehicle of the devas. (Meaning, that those who can fix their mind in this Nădi,
can journey through the sky like Devas; therefore it is called the "Deva-Yăna"
or the vehicle of the Devas.)
12. On the left side stretches forth the Ida (i.e., from the sole of the left
foot up to the Sahasrăra at the top of the head), the brightness of this Nădi
is comparatively less, like the disk or circle of the Moon; it dwells with the
breath of the left nostril and it is called the vehicle of the Pitrs. (Meaning,
that those who can fix their mind in this Nădi, can ascend the Pitr Loka and no
further; hence it is called "Pitr-Yăna" or the vehicle of the Pitrs.)
13 & 14. Like the backbone of a Veena, or harp, the long tract of bone with
many joints that stretches from the seat right up to the head of a human being
is called the Meru-Danda (spinal cord). There is a minute aperture or hole that
passes right through this Meru-Danda from the Mulădhăra to the head; it is
through this hole that there passes a Nădi which the yogis called the Brahma-Nădi
15. Susumnă is a fine nerve that passes between the Idă and Pingală. From
this Susumnă all the Jnăna-Nădis (sensory nerves) take their birth: hence it
is called the Jnăna-Nădi.
[That Nădi that takes its origin from the Sahasrăra, and growing gradually
finer, descends through the canal of the spinal column, is called the Susumnă.
At first nine sets of smaller Nădis spring from it and spread towards the eyes
and other organs of sense, etc.: afterwards from each joint of the spinal column
to which the pairs of ribs are attached, one on either side, and underneath each
rib, there are successively stretched thirty-two sets of Nădis, with
innumerable branchlets covering the whole body like a network; these produce the
sense of touch and perform other necessary work requisite for the upkeep of the
Sthula Sarîra. These Nădis are so fine in their texture that if 400 of them be
collected and tied together,still they cannot be seen by the naked eye; thou so
fine, still they are, like pipes, hollow and in this space there exists a
certain substance,like oil, in which the Caitanya reflects; for this reason the
Rsis call the Susumnă the parent of all these smaller Nădis, the Jnăna-Nădi,
and consider it to be just like a tree with its innumerable branches covering
the whole of the human body,the root being upwards - at the Sahasrăra - and the
16. The Sun, the Moon, and the other Devatas, the fourteen Lokas of Bhur, Bhuvar,
etc., the ten directions,East, West, etc., the sacred places, the seven
oceans,the Himălaya and other mountains, the seven Islands of Jambu, etc., the
seven sacred rivers, Gangă, etc., the four Vedas, all the sacred philosophies,
the sixteen vowels and twenty-four consonants,the Găyatri and other sacred
Mantras, the eighteen Purănas and all the Upa-Purănas included, the three
Gunas, Mahat itself, the root of the Jîvas, the Jîvas and their Atman, the ten
breaths, the whole world, in fact, consisting of all these, exists in the Susumnă.
[As all outward objects that are cognizable by the human senses are reflected in
the Susumnă Nădi, therefore the Rsis call this body the "microcosm".
For instance,when you see the sun, moon, or the stars, you do not actually go
near to them in order to see, but you see them because they are reflected in
your Susumnă Nădi. If your mind had the power to go out of your body, in order
to see them, then you would be able to see all and everything that lies in the
"Royal Road", and in such a case you would know all and every
occurrence that takes place in every quarter of this globe, nay, and somewhere
else, in this vast universe.]
17. As various Nădis have sprung up from the Susumnă, the receptacle of the
Inner soul of all Jîvas - and are stretched out in all directions of the
physical body, therefore it is considered like a huge tree reversed. The Tattva-Jnănins
alone are able to walk on every branch of this tree by the help of Prăna-Văyu.
18. In this human body there exist seventy-two thousand Nădis which admit of
sufficient space for entrance into them through Văyu; the Yogins alone become
acquainted with the true nature of these Nădis by the virtue of their
19. Having closed up the nine portals of the body, and being acquainted with the
source and nature of the Nădis that stretch up and down the seats of the
several organs of sense, the Jîva, rising to the state of superior knowledge
with the aid of the Life-Breath, attains Moksa.
20. On the left side of this Susumnă, and near the point of the nose, there
exists the Indra-Loka by name called Amarăvatî; and the bight luminous sphere
that exists in the eyes is known by the name of Agni-Loka.
[Of the nine sets of nerves springing from the Susumnă, at first one set enters
into the organ of sight, but it forms into a circle before branching out and
entering into both the eyes, this circle is called Agni-Loka. Similarly the
circle which the second set of the nerves make before entering into the
nostrils, is known by the name of Amarâvatî or the capital of Indra-Loka.]
21. Near the right ear exists the Yama-Loka (the place of death) known by the
name of Samyamanî, and on its side exists the sphere of the Nairrta Deva,
called by the name of Nairrta-Loka.
[Yama-Loka means the sphere of Death, because there exists such a delicate place
near the ear that slight injury is likely to cause death to a person; hence this
sphere is called Yama-Loka.
Nairrta-Loka is also called Răkso-Loka. At the side of Yama-Loka there exists a
place the nerves of which enable a person to masticate hard things such as meat,
etc.; hence this place is known by the name of Nairrta-Loka or Răkso-Loka]
22. On the west (i.e., of the Susumnă),and situated in the back, there exists
the sphere of Varuna called by the name of Vibhăvarî: and on the side of the
ears, the sphere is known as Gandhavatî This is the seat of the Văyu.
[There is a certain place in the back of a man which the ordinary people of he
Hindus touch with their wet fingers at the time of performing the halting
ceremony. This place is called Vibhăvarî, because here the nerves are so
sensitive, that no sooner one fixes his attention there than he becomes covered
with Măyă and falls into sleep. The term Vibhăvari means night or darkness.
Similarly the place beside the ears, whence the air carries the smell, is called
Gandhavatî, meaning the place of smell; the place which starts the air to carry
the smell into the nostrils is called the Văyu-Loka.]
23. On the north side of Susumnă, extending from the throat up to the left ear,
and in the sphere of Kubera, known by the name of Pushpavatî, exists the
[Kubera is the god of riches of the Hindu Mythology; his place is called
Puspavatî, meaning place of golden flowers.]
24. In the left eye and in connection with the Isănya direction exists Siva-Loka,
known by the name of Manonmanî; the Brahmapurî that exist in the head should
be considered as the microcosm in the human body (because it is the root and
origin of the Jnăna-Nădi Susumnă, therefore called Manomaya-Jagat, or the
world of mind).
25. Like the dreadful fire at the time of Pralaya, the eternal dwells at the
sole of the feet; the same all-pure eternal imparts blessing, both above, below,
in the middle, in and out (of the body).
[When one dwelling in Susumnă, drinks the nectar of happiness, then whatever
obstacles may appear to him both from above, below, or the middle of his
body,they instantly disappear no sooner the mediator fixes his mind on the
eternal dwelling at the sole of his feet.] [ Referring to the direction of
certain magnetic currents. ]
26. The lower portion, or the sole of the foot, is called Atala; the upper
portion, or the top, is called Vitala; the upper part of the joint between the
leg and foot (i.e., the ankle) is called Nitala, and knee (Jangha) is called
27. The lower portion of the thigh (Jănu) is called Mahătala; the upper
portion of it (Uru) is called Rasătala, and the loin (Kati) is termed Talătala.
In this way it is proper to know the seven Pătălas that exist in the human
28. In the Pătălas where the serpents live in coils, and below the navel, is
the place known by the name of Bhogîndra; this dreadful place, like a burning
Hell and Doomsday Fire, is termed Mahăpătăla; in this sphere, the eternal
known by the name of Jîva, displays itself in serpentine coils like a circle.
29. Bhur-Loka exists in the navel; in the armpit [ This localizes a great
nervous and magnetic centre that directs every motion of the arms.] exists the
Bhuvar, while the Svarga-Loka, with the sun, moon and stars, dwells in the
30. The Yogis realize perfect bliss by imagining the seven Lokas,the Sun, Moon,
Mars, Mercury, Jupiter,Venus, Saturn, and innumerable other Lokas like Dhruva,
etc., in the heart.
31. In the heart (of the person who thus imagines) dwells the Mahar-Loka, the
Jana-Loka exists in the throat, the Tapo-Loka between the two eyebrows, while
the Satya-Loka exists in the head.
32 & 33. This Brahmănda shaped Earth [ That is, like the egg of Brahmă.]
dissolves itself into Water, the Water is dried up by fire, the Air swallows up
the Fire, and the Akăsa drinks the Air in turn; but the Akăsa itself is
assimilated in the Mind, the Mind in Buddhi, the Buddhi in Ahankăra, the Ahankăra
in Citta, and the Citta in Ksetrajna (i.e., Atman or Spirit).
[Ahankăra here means "self-consciousness", Mahat, or the Third Logos;
it corresponds to the Mind in the human principles. Citta means the
"abstract consciousness", the Second Logos, corresponding to Buddhi of
the human principles. Ksetra-jna, or the knower of the planes, means the Spirit
or the First Logos, corresponding to the Atman of the human principles of the
exoteric Theosophy. Mind here means the Kăma Mind, and Buddhi means the faculty
of ascertaining truth.
According to the definition given by Sri Sankarăchărya in his Viveka-Chudămani[
Text in Devanagiri and Translation in English by Mohini Mohan Chatterji. ], the
Mind, Buddhi, Ahankăra, and Citta are the four handmaids of Antahkarana; the
quality of Mind is to doubt, that of Buddhi is to ascertain, Citta retains or
keeps, while Ahankăra, expresses its self-consciousness or shows
"I-am-ness". The place of the mind is the throat, that of Buddhi the
mouth, Citta dwells in the navel, while Ahankăra resides in the heart.] [ All
the explanations in brackets are mere translations, except this portion, which I
have simply explained from the teachings of "H.P.Blavatsky" and
"Sri Sri Sankarăchărya ]
34. The Yogins who contemplate me with one mind as "I am he" are saved
from the sins collected during a hundred millions of Kalpas.
35. As the Akăsa of the pot is absorbed in the Mahăkăsa when the pot is
broken, so also the ignorance-bound Jîvătman is absorbed in the Paramătman
when ignorance is destroyed.
36. He who has been able to acquire the knowledge of the Tattvas that the Jîvătman
is absorbed in the Paramătman, even as the Akăsa of the Pot is absorbed in the
Mahăkăsa, becomes undoubtedly free from the chain of ignorance, and goes into
the sphere of the Light of Supreme Knowledge and Wisdom.
37. If a man practise asceticism and severe austerity for a thousand years,
standing on one leg only, he cannot realize one-sixteenth part of the benefit
gained by Dhyăna Yoga (meditation).
Those that constantly chant the four Vedas and read other religious works and
yet fail to realize "I am that Brahman", they are like the spoons that
are used for every cooking operation, but yet remain without a single taste of
the foods they prepare.
As the ass bears the burden of sandal (wood), whereby he feels only the weight
of the load and not the virtue of the sandal, even so is the case of the
(nominal) readers of the many Săstras, because they do not understand the real
meaning of them, but carry them about like the beast of burden.
38. As long as one does not acquire the knowledge of the Tattvas, so long should
he attentively perform all good acts, observe purity of body and mind, perform
religious sacrifice, and acquire experience and wisdom by visiting sacred
39. At the time when the body oscillates backward and forward, the Brăhmana who
hesitates to believe that he is Brahman fails to understand the great subtle
Atman, even if he be conversant with the four Vedas.
[At the time of practising meditation, when the Susumna commences dancing up and
down the spinal cord by the force of the uprising Fire of Brahmă, then the
Linga Sarîra within begins to move, which necessarily moves or swings the
physical body; if at such a time one fails to consider himself "I am
That" his study of the Vedas and Săstras is simply useless.
Linga is from the word Lîna , which means to unite. As it makes possible the
union with Brahman or Atman, therefore it is called Linga; Sarîră is from the
root ISri, I to emaciate, as it emaciates itself with the belief that "I am
Brahman" therefore it is called Sarîra. Therefore Linga Sarîră means
that body which emaciates itself and finally enables the Jîva to unite with
Atman. Linga Sarîră is increased by constant talking and other actions,
therefore the less is spoken, etc., the better; it is no good increasing the
40. Although the cows may be of different colours,but the colour of their milk
is one and the same; even so in the case of the Jîva, the bodies may look
different, but the Atman is one and the same in all.
41. Food, sleep, fear, and sexual desire men have in common with brutes; it is
the addition of knowledge (i.e., the faculty of knowledge of Buddhi) only that
makes him a man; if, therefore, he is devoid of this he is but equal to a brute.
42. In the morning a man performs the necessities of life, in the middle of the
day he fills his stomach with food, in the evening he satisfies the cravings of
his sexual desire, and afterwards falls into the embraces of deep sleep- such is
the case with the beasts also.
43 & 44. That hundred millions of Jîva and thousands of Năda-Bindus [ See
the Voice of the Silence by H.P.Blavatsky for the Explanation of Năda. Bindu is
the point where the Năda ends and is absorbed in the eternal; Bindu, therefore,
is the mediatrix, the lady in the Bhăgavata who acted as a go-between between
Krishna, the Atmă, and Rădhă, the Manas. ] are constantly destroyed and
absorbed in that All-Purity, therefore the firm conviction that "I am
Brahman" is known to be the only cause of Moksa for Great Souls (Mahătma).
45. Two words bind and liberate the Jîvas respectively, the firm belief of
"I" and "mine" (Mama) holds fast and binds the Jîva down,
and the absence or want of the same (Nirmama) liberates him from all bondage.
46. When the Mind becomes free from all desires and passions, then only the idea
of duality ceases. When there arises that state of Advaita feeling (al in One
and One in all), there dwell the supreme Feet of the Brahman.
47. As an hungry person imply wastes his energy in vain when he strikes the air
with blows for food, so also a reader of the Vedas and others Săstras simply
wastes his time and energy, if, notwithstanding his study, he fails to realize
that "I am Brahman".
1. Săstras are innumerable, and again it takes a long time to understand their
real meaning (even if one succeeds in going through them); life is short, but
the obstacles are many; therefore the intelligent should only take the real
meaning of them as a Hamsa (swan) separates the milk only out of milk-mixed
2. The Purănas, the Bhărata, the Vedas, and various other Săstras, wife,
children, and family are simply so many obstacles on the path of Yoga-practice.
[This is not intended either for beginners or for ordinary people; it is
intended for those only who have risen very high, i.e., above the world of
3. Dost thou desire to know all by thy own experience - that this is knowledge,
and that is worth knowing, etc., - then thou shalt fail to know the end of the Săstras
even if thine age be over a thousand years.
4. Considering life to be very impermanent, try to know only the indestructible
Sat, give up the unnecessary reading of books, and worship Truth.
5. Out of all the beautiful objects that exist in this world, most are intended
either to please the tongue or give pleasures to sex: if you can relinquish the
pleasures of both these,then where is the necessity of this world for you.
(Meaning that these two constitute the essence of selfishness in a man's mind;
discard them, and you get rid of the selfish feeling, thereby living for virtue
and the good of humanity alone.)
6. The sacred rivers after all are but waters and the idols worshipped are
nothing but either stones,metals, or earth. Yogis go neither to the former nor
worship the latter, because within themselves exist all sacred places and the
synthesis of all idols.
7. Agni or Fire is the god of the twice-born who are given to sacrifice; the
Munis call the Atman within them their god, the less intelligent portion worship
the idols, but the Yogis see Brahman equally everywhere - both in the fire,
within themselves, in idols, and all around.
8. As a blind man cannot see the sun although it lightens the whole world, so
those blind of knowledge, or the spiritually blind, also cannot perceive the
Omnipresent Eternal Peace that encompasses the whole universe.
9. Wherever the Mind (of a Tattvajnănin) goes, it sees the Paramătman there
because all and everything is full with the One Brahman.
10. As the serene bright sky is observable with all its panorama of forms,
names, and colours, so he who is able to realize the idea that "I am
Brahman" - in spite of all forms, names, and colours - alone can see the
eternal Paramătman actually.
11. The Yogi, while meditating, should contemplate that "I am the whole
universe"; in this manner he shall see that Paramătman - the Abode of
Supreme Bliss - with the eyes of his knowledge. As long as he shall think of the
Akăsa and identify himself with it, so long shall he consider the All-pervading
Paramătman like Akăsa itself, for the Great Subtle Production from the Portal
of Moksa, the All-full Abode of Nirvăna, the Eternal Paramătman dwells in the
heart of all Jîva, in the form of the Ray of Knowledge - the Spiritual Soul -
in man; this Paramătman should be known as the Brahmătman of the Paramătman-knowing
12. He who has been able to identify himself with the whole universe - as the
One Brahman - should carefully avoid the desire of eating every man's food and
selling all kinds of things.
[There would be no difference between a man and a dog, if he takes impure food
and eats every body's bread. Impure trade also destroys the purity of a man's
13. Where the Yogis stay for one second or even half a second, that place
becomes sacred like Kuruksetra., Prayăga and Naimisăranya because the thought
of Spirituality for one brief second has a greater effect than one thousand
millions of sacrifices.
14. The Yogi who considers this universe as nothing but the One Brahman, at once
destroys both virtue and vice; consequently for him there is neither friend nor
enemy, happiness nor misery, gain nor loss, good nor bad, honour nor dishonour,
praise nor blame; all these become alike to him.
15. When a patched-up cloak with a hundred holes in it, is able to keep off the
summer's heat and winter's cold, then what is the necessity for wealth and
riches for a man whose heart is devoted to the worship of Kesava (Brahman).
16. O Arjuna, the Yogi should not think about or concern himself for his
maintenance; if, however, such a thought is necessary at all, then let him beg
for alms simply to maintain his body, and protect himself form cold by the
clothes of charity; to him diamond and stones, green vegetables and coarse rice,
and all other objects in this world, are of equal value (i.e., he becomes
indifferent to all).
17. O Arjuna, he who does not covet material objects, never takes birth again in