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Part Four   Chapter I

Brihadaranyaka Upanishad      (continued..)

Source: "The Upanishads - A New Translation" by Swami Nikhilananda

go back to part 1 to part 3

Part Four 

Chapter I—Partial Definitions of Brahman 

1.    Om. Janaka, Emperor of Videha, was seated to give audience  when Yajnavalkya arrived. The Emperor said to him:  "Yajnavalkya, for what purpose have you come here? With a  desire for cattle, or to hear some subtle questions asked?"  "For both, Your Majesty," said he.  

2.    Yajnavalkya said: "Let me hear what anyone among your  teachers may have told you."  "Jitvan, the son of Silina, told me that the organ of speech (fire)  is Brahman."  "As anyone who had the benefit of being taught by a good  mother, father and teacher should say, so did the son of Silina  say that the organ of speech is Brahman; for what can be  attained by a person who cannot speak? But did he tell you  about its abode (body) and support?"  "No, he did not."  "This Brahman is only one—footed, Your Majesty."  "Then you tell us, O Yajnavalkya."  “The physical organ of speech is its abode and the akasa is its  support. It should be mediated upon as intelligence.”  “What is intelligence, O Yajnavalkya?”  “It is the organ of speech, Your Majesty,” said Yajnavalkya.  “Through the organ of speech alone, O Emperor, are known the  Rig—Veda, the Yagur—Veda, the Sama—Veda, the  Atharvangirasa, history, ancient lore, the arts, the Upanishads,  verses, aphorisms, explanations, commentaries, the results of  sacrifices, the result of offering oblations in the fire, the results  of giving food and drink, this world, the next world and all  beings.  “The organ of speech, Your Majesty, is the Supreme Brahman.  The organ of speech never deserts him who, knowing this,  meditates upon it; all beings eagerly approach him; and being a  god, he attains the gods.”  “I give you a thousand cows with a bull as large as an  elephant,” said Emperor Janaka.  Yajnavalkya replied: “My father was of the opinion that one  should not accept gifts from a disciple without fully instructing  him.” 

3.    Yajnavalkya said: "Let me hear what anyone among your  teachers may have told you."  "Udanka, the son of Sulba, told me that the vital breath (prana)  is Brahman."  "As anyone who had the benefit of being taught by a good  mother, father and teacher should say, so did the son of Sulba  say that the vital breath is Brahman; for what can be attained by  a person who does not live? But did he tell you about its abode  and support?"  "No, he did not."  "This Brahman is only one—footed, Your Majesty."  "Then you tell us, O Yajnavalkya."  "The vital breath is its abode and the akasa is its support. It should be meditated upon as dear."  "What is that dearness, O Yajnavalkya?"  "It is the vital breath, Your Majesty," said Yajnavalkya. "For  the sake of that vital breath (life), O Emperor, one performs  sacrifices for him for whom they should not be performed and  accepts gifts from him from whom they should not be accepted;  nay, for the sake of the vital breath, O Emperor, one may go to  a quarter where one runs the risk of losing one’s life.  "The vital breath, O Emperor, is the Supreme Brahman. The  vital breath never deserts him who, knowing what has just been  said, meditates upon it; all beings eagerly approach him; and  being a god, he attains the gods."  "I give you a thousand cows with a bull as large as an  elephant," said Emperor Janaka.  Yajnavalkya replied: "My father was of the opinion that one  should not accept gifts from a disciple without fully instructing  him." 

4.    Yajnavalkya said: "Let me hear what anyone among your  teachers may have told you.  "Barku, the son of Vrishna, told me that the eye is Brahman."  "As anyone who had the benefit of being taught by a good  mother, father and teacher should say, so did the son of Vrishna  say that the eye is Brahman; for what can be attained by a  person who cannot see? But did he tell you about its abode and  support?"  "No, he did not."  "This Brahman is only one—footed, Your Majesty."  "Then you tell us, O Yajnavalkya."  "The eye is its abode and the akasa is its support. It should be  meditated upon as truth."  "What is truth, O Yajnavalkya?"  "It is the eye, Your Majesty," said Yajnavalkya. "Verily, Your  Majesty, if one asks a person who has seen with his eyes:  ‘Have you seen?’ and he answers: ‘Yes, I have,’ then it is true.  "The eye, Your Majesty, is the Supreme Brahman. The eye  never deserts him who, knowing what has just been said,  meditates upon it; all beings eagerly approach him; and being a  god, he attains the gods."  "I give you a thousand cows with a bull as large as an  elephant," said Emperor Janaka.  Yajnavalkya replied: "My father was of the opinion that one  should not accept gifts from a disciple without fully instructing  him."  

5.    Yajnavalkya said: "Let me hear what anyone among your  teachers may have told you."  "Gardabhivipita, a descendant of Bharadvaja, told me that the  ear is Brahman."  "As anyone who had the benefit of being taught by a good  mother, father and teacher should say, so did the descendant of  Bharadvaja say that the ear is Brahman; for what can be  attained by a person who cannot hear? But did he tell you about  its abode and support?"  "No, he did not."  "This Brahman is only one—footed, Your Majesty."  "Then you tell us, O Yajnavalkya."  "The ear is its abode and the akasa is its support. It should be  meditated upon as infinite."  "What is infinity, O Yajnavalkya?"  "It is the quarters, Your Majesty," said Yajnavalkya. "Verily,  Your Majesty, to whatever quarter (direction) one may go, one  never reaches its end. Hence the quarters are infinite. The  quarters, O Emperor, are the ear and the ear, O Emperor, is the  Supreme Brahman.  "The ear never deserts him who, knowing this, meditates upon  it; all beings eagerly approach him; and being a god, he attains  the gods."  "I give you a thousand cows with a bull as large as an  elephant," said Emperor Janaka.  Yajnavalkya replied: "My father was of the opinion that one  should not accept gifts from a disciple without fully instructing  him." 

6.    Yajnavalkya said: "Let me hear what anyone among your  teachers may have told you."  "Satyakama, the son of Jabala, told me that the mind is  Brahman."  "As anyone who had the benefit of being taught by a good  mother, father and teacher should say, so did the son of Jaa say  that the mind is Brahman; for what can be attained by a person  who has no mind? But did he tell you about its abode and  support?"  "No, he did not."  "This Brahman is only one—footed, Your Majesty."  "Then you tell us, O Yajnavalkya."  "The mind is its abode and the akasa is its support. It should be  meditated upon as bliss."  "What is bliss, O Yajnavalkya?"  "It is the mind, Your Majesty," said Yajnavdkya. "Verily, Your  Majesty, with the mind a man desires and woos a woman; then  160  a son resembling him is born of her and he is the cause of bliss.  The mind, O Emperor, is the Supreme Brahman.  "The mind never deserts him who, knowing this, meditates  upon it; all beings eagerly approach him; and being a god, he  attains the gods."  "I give you a thousand cows with a bull as large as an  elephant," said Emperor Janaka.  Yajnavalkya replied: "My father was of the opinion that one  should not accept gifts from a disciple without fully instructing  him." 

7.    Yajnavalkya said: "Let me hear what anyone among your  teachers may have told you."  "Vidaghdha, the son of Sakala, told me that the heart is  Brahman."  "As anyone who had the benefit of being taught by a good  mother, father and teacher should say, so did the son of Sakala  say that the heart is Brahman; for what can be attained by a  person who is without a heart? But did he tell you about its  abode and support?"  "No, he did not."  "This Brahman is only one—footed, Your Majesty."  "Then you tell us, O Yajnavalkya."  "The heart is its abode and the akasa is its support. It should be  meditated upon as stability."  "What is stability, O Yajnavalkya?"  "It is the heart," said Yajnavalkya. "Verily, Your Majesty, the  heart is the abode of all beings and the heart, Your Majesty, is  the support of all beings. The heart, O Emperor, is the Supreme  Brahman.  "The heart never deserts him who, knowing this, meditates  upon it; all beings eagerly approach him; and being a god, he  attains the gods."  "I give you a thousand cows with a bull as large as an  elephant," said Emperor Janaka.  Yajnavalkya replied: "My father was of the opinion that one  should not accept gifts from a disciple without fully instructing  him." 

Chapter II—Concerning The Self 

1.    Janaka, Emperor of Videha, rose from his lounge, humbly  approached Yajnavalkya and said: "Salutation to you, O  Yajnavalkya. Please instruct me."  Yajnavalkya said: "Your Majesty, as one who wishes to go a  long distance would procure a chariot or a ship, even so you have fully equipped your mind with so many secret names of  Brahman. You are also honoured and wealthy; you have  studied the Vedas and heard the Upanishads. But do you know  where you will go when you are released from this body?"  "Venerable Sir, I do not know where I shall go."  "Then I will tell you where you will go."  "Tell me, venerable Sir." 

2.    "The person who is in the right eye is named Indha. Though he  is Indha, people call him by the indirect name Indra; for the  gods are fond of indirect names and hate to be addressed  directly. 

3.    "The person who is in the left eye is his wife, Viraj (matter).  The akasa that lies within the heart is their place of union. Their  food is the lump (pinda) of blood in the heart. Their wrap is the  net—like structure in the heart. The path on which they move  from sleep to waking is the nerve that goes upward from the  heart; it is like a hair split into a thousand

Parts. In the body  there are nerves called hita, which are placed in the heart.  Through these the essence of our food passes as it moves on.  Therefore the subtle body (Taijasa) receives finer food than the  gross body (Vaisvanara). 

4.    "Of the illumined sage who is identified with Prajna in deep  sleep the east is the eastern vital breath (prana), the south is the  southern vital breath, the west is the western vital breath, the  north is the northern vital breath, the upper direction is the  upper vital breath, the direction below is the nether vital breath  and all the directions are all the vital breaths.  "This self is That which has been described as ‘Not this, not  this.’ It is imperceptible, for It is never perceived; undecaying,  for It never decays; unattached, for It is never attached;  unfettered, for It never feels pain and never suffers injury.  "Verily, O Janaka, you have attained That which is free from  fear," said Yajnavalkya.  "Venerable Yajnavalkya," said Emperor Janaka, "may that  fearless Brahman be yours too, for you have made known to us  the fearless Brahman. Salutations to you! Here is the Empire of  Videha and also myself at your service." 

Chapter III—Investigation of the Three States 

1.    Yajnavalkya called on Janaka, Emperor of Videha. He said to  himself: "I will not say anything."  But once upon a time Janaka, Emperor of Videha and  Yajnavalkya had had a talk about the Agnihotra sacrifice and  Yajnavalkya had offered him a boon. Janaka had chosen the  right to ask him any questions he wished and Yajnavalkya had  granted him the boon.  So it was the Emperor who first questioned him. 

2.    "Yajnavalkya, what serves as light for a man?"  "The light of the sun, O Emperor," said Yajnavalkya, "for with  the sun as light he sits, goes out, works and returns."  "Just so, Yajnavalkya." 

3.    "When the sun has set, Yajnavalkya, what serves as light for a  man?"  "The moon serves as his light, for with the moon as light he  sits, goes out, works and returns."  "Just so, Yajnavalkya." 

4.    "When the sun has set and the moon has set, Yajnavalkya, what  serves as light for a man?"  "Fire serves as his light, for with fire as light he sits, goes out,  works and returns."  "Just so, Yajnavalkya." 

5.    "When the sun has set, Yajnavalkya and the moon has set and  the fire has gone out, what serves as light for a man?"  "Speech (sound) serves as his light, for with speech as light he  sits, goes out, works and returns. Therefore, Your Majesty,  when one cannot see even one’s own hand, yet when a sound is  uttered, one can go there."  "Just so, Yajnavalkya." 

6.    "When the sun has set, Yajnavalkya and the moon has set and  the fire has gone out and speech has stopped, what serves as  light for a man?"  "The self, indeed, is his light, for with the self as light he sits,  goes out, works and returns." 

7.    "Which is the self?"  "This purusha which is identified with the intellect  (vijnanamaya) and is in the midst of the orgams, the self—  indulgent light within the heart (intellect). Assuming the  likeness of the intellect, it wansers between the two worlds; it  thinks, as it were and moves, as it were being indetified with  dreasm, it trasncends this waking world, which represents the  forms of death (ignorance and its effects). 

8.    "That person (the individual self), when he is born, that is to  say, when he assumes a body, is joined with evils and when he  dies, that is to say, leaves the body, he discards those evils. 

9.    "And there are only two states for that person: the one here in  this world and the other in the next world. The third, the  intermediate, is the dream state. When he is in that intermediate  state, he surveys both states: the one here in this world and the  other in the next world. Now, whatever support he may have  for the next world, he provides himself with that and sees both  evils (sufferings) and joys.  "And when he dreams, he takes away a little of the impressions  of this all—embracing world (the waking state), himself makes  the body unconscious and creates a dream body in its place,  revealing his own brightness by his own light—and he dreams.  In this state the person becomes self—illumined. 

10.    "There are no real chariots in that state, nor animals to be yoked  to them, nor roads there, but he creates the chariots, animals  and roads. There are no pleasures in that state, no joys, no  rejoicings, but he creates the pleasures, joys and rejoicings.  There are no pools in that state, no reservoirs, no rivers, but he  creates the pools, reservoirs and rivers. He indeed is the agent. 

11.    "Regarding this there are the following verses:  ‘The effulgent infinite being (purusha), who travels alone,  makes the body insensible in sleep but himself remains awake and taking with him the luminous particles of the organs,  watches those which lie dormant. Again he comes to the  waking state. 

12.    ‘The effulgent infinite being (purusha), who is immortal and  travels alone, guards the unclean nest (body) with the help of  the vital breath (prana) and himself moves out of the nest. That  immortal entity wanders wherever he likes. 

13.    ‘In the dream world, the luminous one attains higher and lower  states and creates many forms—now, as it were, enjoying  himself in the company of women, now laughing, now even  beholding frightful sights. 

14.    ‘Everyone sees his sport but him no one sees.’ They say: ‘Do  not wake him suddenly.’ If he does not find the right organ, the  body becomes difficult to doctor. 

15.    Yajnavalkya said: "Tha entity (purusha), after enjoying himself  and raoming in the dream state and merely witnessing the  results of good and evil, remians in a state of profound sleep  and then hastens back in the reverse way to his former  condition, the dream state. He remains unaffected by whatever  he sees in that dream state, for this infinite being is unattached."  Janaka said: "Just so, Yajnavalkya. I give you, Sir, a thousand  cows.  Please instruct me further about Liberation itself. 

16.    "Yajnavalkya said: "That entity (purusha), after enjoying  himself and roaming in the dream state and merely witnessing  the results of good and evil, hastens back in the reverse way to  his former condition, the waking state. He remains unaffected  by whatever he sees in that state, for this infinite being is  unattached."  Janaka said: "Just so, Yajnavalkya. I give you, Sir, a thousand  cows.  Please instruct me further about Liberation itself."  

17.    Yajnavalkya said: "That entity (purusha), after enjoying  himself and roaming in the waking state and merely witnessing  the results of good and evil, hastens back in the reverse way to  its former condition, the dream state or that of dreamless sleep. 

18.    "As a large fish swims alternately to both banks of a river—the  east and the west—so does the infinite being move to both  these states: dreaming and waking. 

19.    "As a hawk or a falcon roaming in the sky becomes tired, folds  its wings and makes for its nest, so does this infinite entity  (purusha) hasten for this state, where, falling asleep, he  cherishes no more desires and dreams no more dreams. 

20.    "There are ni his body nerves (nadis) called hita, which are fine  as a hair divided into a thousand parts and are filled with white,  blue, brown, green and red fluids. Theyt are the seat of the  suble body, which is the storehouse of impressions. Now, when  he feels as if he were being killed or overpowered, or being  chased by an elephant, or falling into a pit, in short, when he  fancies at that time, thorough ignorance, whatever frightful  thing he has expericned in the waking state, that is the dream  state. So also, when he thinks he is a god, as it were, or a king,  as it were, or thinks: "This universe is myself and I am all,: that  is his highest state. 

21.    "That indeed is his form—free from desires, free from evils,  free from fear. As a man fully embraced by his beloved wife  knows nothing that is without, nothing that is within, so does  this infinite being (the self), when fully embraced by the  Supreme Self, know nothing that is without, nothing that is  within.  "That indeed is his form, in which all his desires are fulfilled, in  which all desires become the self and which is free from desires  and devoid of grief. 

22.    "In this state a father is no more a father, a mother is no more a  mother, the worlds are no more the worlds, the gods are no  more the gods, the Vedas are no more the Vedas. In this state a  thief is no more a thief, the killer of a noble brahmin is no more  a killer, a chandala is no more a chandala, a paulkasa is no  more a paulkasa, a monk is no more a monk, an ascetic is no  more an ascetic.  "This form of his is untouched by good deeds and untouched by  evil deeds, for he is then beyond all the woes of his heart. 

23.    "And when it appears that in deep sleep it does not see, yet it is  seeing though it does not see; for there is no cessation of the  vision of the seer, because the seer is imperishable. There is  then, however, no second thing separate from the seer that it  could see. 

24.    "And when it appears that in deep sleep it does not smell, yet it  is smelling though it does not smell; for there is no cessation of  the smelling of the smeller, because the smeller is imperishable.  There is then, however, no second thing separate from the  smeller that it could smell. 

25.    "And when it appears that in deep sleep it does not taste, yet it  is tasting though it does not taste; for there is no cessation of  the tasting of the taster, because the taster is imperishable.  There is then, however, no second thing separate from the taster  that it could taste. 

26.    "And when it appears that in deep sleep it does not speak, yet it  is speaking though it does not speak; for there is no cessation of  the speaking of the speaker, because the speaker is  imperishable. There is then, however, no second thing separate  from the speaker that it could speak about. 

27.    "And when it appears that in deep sleep it does not hear, yet it  is hearing though it does not hear; for there is no cessation of  the hearing of the hearer, because the hearer is imperishable.  There is then, however, no second thing separate from the  hearer that it could hear.  

28.    "And when it appears that in deep sleep it does not think, yet it  is thinking though it does not think; for there is no cessation of  the thinking of the thinker, because the thinker is imperishable.  There is then, however, no second thing separate from the  thinker that it could think of. 

29.    "And when it appears that in deep sleep it does not touch, yet it  is touching though it does not touch; for there is no cessation of  the touching of the toucher, because the toucher is  imperishable. There is then, however, no second thing separate  from the toucher that it could touch. 

30.    "And when it appears that in deep sleep it does not know, yet it  is knowing though it does not know; for there is no cessation of  the knowing of the knower, because the knower is  imperishable. There is then, however, no second thing separate  from the knower that it could know. 

31.    "When in the waking and dream states there is, as it were,  another, then one can see the other, then one can smell the  other, then one can speak to the other, then one can hear the  other, then one can think of the other, then one can touch the  other, then one can know the other. 

32.    "In deep sleep it becomes transparent like water, the witness,  one and without a second. This is the World of Brahman, Your  Majesty. This is its supreme attainment, this is its supreme  glory, this it its highest world, this is its supreme bliss. On a particle of this bliss other creatures live."  Thus did Yajnavalkya teach Janaka. 

33.    "If a person is perfect of body and is prosperous, lord of others  and most lavishly supplied with all human enjoyments, he  represents the highest blessing among men. This human bliss  multiplied a hundred times makes one measure of the bliss of  the Manes who have won their own world. The bliss of these  Manes who have won their world, multiplied a hundred times,  makes one measure of bliss in the world of the gandharvas. The bliss of the gandharvas, multiplied a hundred times, makes one  measure of the bliss of the gods by action (those who attain  godhood through sacrificial rites). The bliss of the gods by  action, multiplied a hundred times, makes one measure of the  bliss of the gods by birth, as also of one who is versed in the  Vedas, sinless and free from desire. The bliss of the gods by  birth, multiplied a hundred times, makes one measure of bliss  in the World of Prajapan (Viraj), as also of one who is versed in  the Vedas, sinless and free from desire. The bliss in the World  of Prajapati, multiplied a hundred times, makes one measure of  bliss in the World of Brahma (Hiranyagarbha), as also O£ one  who is versed in the Vedas, sinless and free from desire. This,  indeed, is the supreme bliss. This is the state of Brahman, O  Emperor," said Yajnavalkya.  Janaka said: I give you a thousand cows, venerable Sir. Please  instruct me further about Liberation itself."  At this Yajnavalkya was afraid that the intelligent emperor was  driving him to give the solution of all his questions. 

34.    "That entity (the self), after enjoying himself and roaming in  the dream state and merely witnessing the results of merits and  demerits, hastens back in the reverse way to its former  condition, the waking state. 

35.    "Just as a heavily loaded cart moves along, creaking, even so  the self identified with the body, being presided over by the  Self which is all consciousness (the Supreme Self), moves  along, groaning, when breathing becomes difficult at the  approach of death. 

36.    "When this body grows thin—becomes emaciated or disease—  then, as a mango or a fig or a fruit of the peepul tree becomes  detached from its stalk, so does this infinite being completdy  detaching himself from the parts of the body, again move on, in  the same way that he came, to another body for the  remanisfestation of his vital breath (prana). 

37.    "Just as, when a king comes, the ugras appointed to deal with  crimes; the sutas and the leaders of the village await him with  food and drink and lodgings ready, saying: ‘Here he comes,  here he comes,’ even so, for the person who knows about the fruits of his own work, there wait all the elements, saying:  ‘Here comes Brahman, here he comes.’ 

38    "Just as, when the king wishes to depart, the ugras appointed to  deal with crimes, the sutas and the leaders of the village gather  around him, even so do all the organs gather around the self, at  the time of death, when it struggles for breath." 

Chapter IV—Death and the Hereafter 

1.    Yajnavalkya continued: "Now, when that self becomes weak  and unconscious, as it were, the organs gather around it.  Having wholly seized these particles of light, the self comes to  the heart. When the presiding deity of the eye turns back from  all sides, the dying man fails to notice colour. 

2.    "The eye becomes united with the subtle body; then people say:  ‘He does not see.’ The nose becomes united with the subtle  body; then they say: ‘He does not smell.’ The tongue becomes  united with the subtle body; then they say: ‘He does not taste.’  The vocal organ becomes united with the subtle body; then they  say: ‘He does not speak.’ The ear becomes united with the  subtle body; then they say: ‘He does not hear.’ The mind  becomes united with the subtle body; then they say: ‘He does  not think.’ The skin becomes united with the subtle body; then  they say: ‘He does not touch.’ The intellect becomes united  with the subtle body; then they say: ‘He does not know.’  "The upper end of the heart lights up and by that light the self  departs, either through the eye or through the head or through  any other part (aperture) of the body.  "And when the self departs, the vital breath follows and when  the vital breath departs, all the organs follow.  "Then the self becomes endowed with a particular  consciousness and passes on to the body to be attained by that  consciousness.  "Knowledge, work and past experience follow the self. 

3.    "And just as a leech moving on a blade of grass reaches its end,  takes hold of another and draws itself together towards it, so  does the self, after throwing off this body, that is to say, after  making it unconscious, take hold of another support and draw  itself together towards it.  

4.    "And just as a goldsmith takes a small quantity of gold and  fashions out of it another—a newer and better—form, so does  the self, after throwing off this body, that is to say, after making  it unconscious, fashion another—a newer and better—form,  suited to the Manes, or the gandharvas, or the gods, or Viraj, or  Hiranyagarbha, or other beings. 

5.    "That self is indeed Brahman; it is also identified with the  intellect, the mind and the vital breath, with the eyes and ears,  with earth, water, air and akasa, with fire and with what is other  than fire, with desire and with absence of desire, with anger and  with absence of anger, with righteousness and unrighteousness,  with all—it is identified, as is well known, with this (i.e. what  is perceived) and with that (i.e. what is inferred). According as  it acts and according as it behaves, so it becomes: by doing  good it becomes good and by doing evil it becomes evil. It  becomes virtuous through virtuous action and evil through evil  action.  "Others, however, say that the self is identified with desire  alone. As is its desire, so is its resolution; and as is its  resolution, so is its deed; and whatever deed it does, that it  reaps. 

6.    "Regarding this there is the following verse:  "Because of attachment, the transmigrating self, together with  its work, attains that result to which its subtle body or mind  clings. Having exhausted in the other world the results of  whatever work it did in this life, it returns from that world to  this world for fresh work.’  "Thus does the man who desires transmigrate. But as to the  man who does not desire—who is without desire, who is freed  from desire, whose desire is satisfied, whose only object of  desire is the Self—his organs do not depart. Being Brahman, he  merges in Brahman. 

7.    "Regarding this there are the following verses:  "When all the desires that dwell in his heart are got rid of, then  does the mortal man become immortal and attain Brahman in  this very body.’  "Just as the slough of a snake lies, dead and cast away, on an  ant—hill, even so lies this body. Then the self becomes  disembodied and immortal Spirit, the Supreme Self (Prana),  Brahman, the Light."  Janaka, Emperor of Videha, said: "I give you, venerable Sir, a  thousand cows." 

8.    "Regarding this there are the following verses:  ‘The subtle, ancient path stretching far away has been touched  (reached) by me; nay, I have realized it myself. By this path the  wise, the knowers of Brahman, move on to the celestial sphere  (Liberation) after the fall of this body, having been freed even  while living.’ 

9.    ‘Some speak of it as white, others as blue, grey, green, or red.  This path is realized by a knower of Brahman and is trod by  whoever knows Brahman, has done good deeds and is  identified with the Supreme Light.’ 

10.    ‘Into blinding darkness enter those who worship ignorance; into  a greater darkness than that, as it were, enter those who are  devoted to knowledge.’ 

11.    ‘Cheerless indeed are those worlds covered with blinding  darkness. To them after death go those people who are ignorant  and unwise.’ 

12.    ‘If a man knows the Self as I am this, then desiring what and  for whose sake will he suffer in the wake of the body?’ 

13.    ‘Whoever has realized and intimately known the Self, Which  has entered this perilous and perplexing place (the body), is the  maker of the universe; for he is the maker of all. All is his Self  and he, again, is indeed the Self of all.’ 

14.    ‘Dwelling in this very body, we have somehow realized  Brahman; otherwise we should have remained ignorant and  great destruction would have overtaken us. Those who know  Brahman become immortal, while others only suffer misery.’  

15.    ‘When a person following the instructions of a teacher directly  beholds the effulgent Self, the Lord of all that has been and will  be, he no longer wishes to hide himself from It.’ 

16.    ‘That under which the year with its days rolls on—upon that  immortal Light of l lights the gods meditate as longevity.’ 

17.    ‘That in which the five groups of five and the akasa rest, that  very Atman I regard as the Immortal Brahman. Knowing that  Brahman, I am immortal.’ 

18.    ‘They who know the Vital Breath (Prana) of the vital breath  (prana), the Eye of the eye, the Ear of the ear, the Mind of the  mind, have realized the ancient, primordial Brahman.’ 

19.    ‘Through the mind alone is Brahman to be realized. There is in  It no diversity. He goes from death to death who sees in It, as it  were, diversity.’ 

20.    ‘Unknowable and constant, It should be realized in one form  only. The Self is free from taint, beyond the akasa, birthless,  infinite and unchanging.’ 

21.    ‘The intelligent seeker of Brahman, learning about the Self  alone, should practise wisdom (prajna). Let him not think of too  many words, for that is exhausting to the organ of speech.’ 

22.    "That great, unborn Self, which is identified with the intellect  (vijnanamaya) and which dwells in the midst of the organs, lies  in the akasa within the heart. It is the controller of all, the lord  of all, the ruler of all. It does not become greater through good  deeds or smaller through evil deeds. It is the lord of all, the  ruler of all beings, the protector of all beings. It is the dam that  serves as the boundary to keep the different worlds apart. The brahmins seek to realize It through the study of the Vedas,  through sacrifices, through gifts and through austerity which  does not lead to annihilation. Knowing It alone one becomes a  sage (muni). Wishing for this World (i.e. the Self) alone, monks  renounce their homes.  "The knowers of Brahman of olden times, it is said, did not  wish for offspring because they thought: ‘What shall we do  with offspring—we who have attained this Self, this World?’  They gave up, it is said, their desire for sons, for wealth and for  the worlds and led the life of religious mendicants. That which  is the desire for sons is the desire for wealth and that which is  the desire for wealth is the desire for the worlds; for both these,  indeed, are but desires.  ‘This Self is That which has been described as Not this, not  this. It is imperceptible, for It is not perceived; undecaying, for  It never decays; unattached, for It is never attached; unfettered,  for It never feels pain and never suffers injury.  ‘Him who knows this these two thoughts do not overcome: For  this I did an evil deed and For this I did a good deed. He  overcomes both. Things done or not done do not afflict him.’ 

23.    "This has been expressed by the following Rig verse:  ‘This is the eternal glory of Brahman: It neither increases nor  decreases through work. Therefore one should know the nature  of That alone. Knowing It one is not touched by evil action.’  "Therefore he who knows It as such becomes self—controlled,  calm, withdrawn into himself, patient and collected; he sees the  Self in his own self (body); he sees all as the Self. Evil does not  overcome him, but he overcomes all evil. Evil does not afflict  him, but he consumes all evil. He becomes sinless, taintless,  free from doubts and a true Brahmana (knower of Brahman).  This is the World of Brahman, O Emperor and you have  attained It." Thus said Yajnavalkya.  Janaka said: ‘Venerable Sir, I give you the empire of Videha  and myself, too, with it, to wait upon you. 

24.    That great, unborn Self is the eater of food and the giver of  wealth. He who knows this obtains wealth. 

25.    That great, unborn Self is undecaying, immortal, undying,  fearless; It is Brahman (infinite). Brahman is indeed fearless.  He who knows It as such becomes the fearless Brahman. 

Chapter V—Yajnavalkya and Maitreyi (II) 

1.    Yajnavalkya had two wives: Maitreyi and Katyayani. Of these,  Maitreyi was conversant with the Knowledge of Brahman,  while Katyayani had an essentially feminine outlook. One day  Yajnavalkya, when he wished to embrace another mode of life, 

2.    Said: "Maitreyi, my dear, I am going to renounce this life to  become a monk. Let me make a final settlement between you  and Katyayani." 

3.    Maitreyi said: "Venerable Sir, if indeed the whole earth full of  wealth belonged to me, would I be immortal through that or  not?" "No," replied Yajnavalkya, "your life would be just like  that of people who have plenty. Of Immortality, however, there  is no hope through wealth." 

4.    Then Maitreyi said: "What should I do with that which would  not make me immortal? Tell me, venerable Sir, of that alone  which you know to be the only means of attaining  Immortality." 

5.    Yajnavalkya replied: "My dear, you have been my beloved  even before and now you have resolved to know what is after  my heart. If you wish, my dear, I shall explain it to you. As I  explain it, meditate on what I say." 

6.    And he said: "Verily, not for the sake of the husband, my dear,  is the husband loved, but he is loved for the sake of the self  which, in its true nature, is one with the Supreme Self.  "Verily, not for the sake of the wife, my dear, is the wife loved,  but she is loved for the sake of the self.  "Verily, not for the sake of the sons, my dear, are the sons  loved, but they are loved for the sake of the self.  "Verily, not for the sake of wealth, my dear, is wealth loved,  but it is loved for the sake of the self.  "Verily, not for the sake of the animals, my dear, are the  animals loved, but they are loved for the sake of the self.  "Verily, not for the sake of the brahmin, my dear, is the  brahmin loved, but he is loved for the sake of the self.  "Verily, not for the sake of the kshatriya, my dear, is the  kshatriya loved, but he is loved for the sake of the self.  "Verily, not for the sake of the worlds, my dear, are the worlds  loved, but they are loved for the sake of the self.  "Verily, not for the sake of the gods, my dear, are the gods  loved, but they are loved for the sake of the self.  "Verily, not for the sake of the Vedas, my dear, are the Vedas  loved, but they are loved for the sake of the self.  "Verily, not for the sake of the beings, my dear, are the beings  loved, but they are loved for the sake of the self.  "Verily, not for the sake of the All, my dear, is the All loved,  but it is loved for the sake of the self.  "Verily, my dear Maitreyi, it is the Self that should be  realized—should be heard of, reflected on and meditated upon.  By the realisation of the Self, my dear, through hearing,  reflection and meditation, all this is known. 

7.    "The brahmin rejects one who knows him as different from the  Self. The kshatriya rejects one who knows him as different  from the Self. The worlds reject one who knows them as  different from the Self. The gods reject one who knows them as  different from the Self. The Vedas reject one who knows them  as different from the Self. The beings reject one who knows  them as different from the Self. The All rejects one who knows  it as different from the Self. This brahmin, this kshatriya, these  worlds, these gods, these Vedas, these beings and this All—are  that Self.  

8—10.    "As the various particular kinds of notes of a drum, when it is  beaten, cannot be grasped by themselves, but are grasped only  when the general note of the drum or the general sound  produced by different kinds of strokes is grasped;  "And as the various particular notes of a conch, when it is  blown, cannot be grasped by themselves, but are grasped only  when the general note of the conch or the general sound  produced by different kinds of blowing is grasped;  "And as the various particular notes of a vina, when it is  played, cannot be grasped by themselves, but are grasped only  when the general note of the vina or the general sound  produced by the different kinds of playing is grasped;  

11.    "As from a fire kindled with wet fuel various kinds of smoke  issue forth, even so, my dear, the Rig—Veda, the Yajur—Veda,  the Sama—Veda, the Atharvangirasa, history (itihasa),  mythology (purana), the arts (vidya), Upanishads, verses  (slokas), aphorisms (sutras), elucidations (anuvyakhyanas),  explanations (vyakhyanas), sacrifices, oblations in the fire,  food, drink, this world, the next world and all beings are all like  the breath of this infinite Reality. From this Supreme Self are  all these, indeed, breathed forth. 

12.    "As the ocean is the one goal of all waters (the place where  they merge), so the skin is the one goal of all kinds of touch,  the nostrils are the one goal of all smells, the tongue is the one  goal of all savours, the ear is the one goal of all sounds, the  mind is the one goal of all deliberations, the intellect is the one  goal of all forms of knowledge, the hands are the one goal of all  actions, the organ of generation is the one goal of all kinds of  enjoyment, the excretory organ is the one goal of all excretions,  the feet are the one goal of all kinds of walking, the organ of  speech is the one goal of all the Vedas. 

13.    "As a lump of salt has neither inside nor outside and is  altogether a homogeneous mass of taste, even so this Self, my  dear, has neither inside nor outside and is altogether a  homogeneous mass of Intelligence. This Self comes out as a  separate entity from the elements and with their destruction this  separate existence is also destroyed. After attaining this  oneness it has no more consciousness. This is what I say, my  dear."  So said Yajnavalkya. 

14.    Then Maitreyi said: "Just here you have completely bewildered  me, venerable Sir. Indeed, I do not at all understand this."  He replied: "Certainly I am not saying anything bewildering,  my dear. Verily, this Self is immutable and indestructible. 

15.    "For when there is duality, as it were, then one sees another,  one smells another, one tastes another, one speaks to another,  one hears another, one thinks of another, one touches another,  one knows another. But when to the knower of Brahman everything has become the Self, then what should he see and  through what, what should he smell and through what, what  should he taste and through what, what should he speak and  through what, what should he hear and through what, what  should he think and through what, what should he touch and  through what, what should he know and through what?  Through what should one know That Owing to which all this is  known?  "This Self is That which has been described as ‘Not this, not  this.’ It is imperceptible, for It is never perceived; undecaying,  for It never decays; unattached, for It never attaches Itself;  unfettered, for It never feels pain and never suffers injury.  Through what, O Maitreyi, should one know the Knower?  "Thus you have the instruction given to you. This much,  indeed, is the means to Immortality."  Having said this, Yajnavalkya renounced home. 

Chapter VI—The Line of Teachers 

1.    Now the line of teachers:  We received the knowledge from Pautimashya. Pautimashya  received it from Gaupavana. Gaupavana from another  Pautimashya. This Pautimashya from another Gaupavana. This  Gaupavana from Kausika. Kausika from Kaundinya.  Kaundinya from Sandilya. Sandilya from Kausika and  Gautama. Gautama 

2.    From Agnivesya. Agnivesya from Gargya. Gargya from  another Gargya. This Gargya from Gautama. Gautama from  Saitava. Saitava from Pirasaryayana. Parasarayayana from  Gargyayana. Gargyayana from Uddalakayana. Uddalakayana  from Jabalayana. Jabalayana from Madhyandinayana.  Madhyandinayana from Saukarayana. Saukarayana from  Kashayana. Kashayana from Sayakayana. Sayakayana from  Kausikayani. Kausikayani 

3.    From Ghritakausika. Ghritakausika from Parasaryayana.  Parasaryayana from Parasarya. Parasarya from Jatukarnya.  Jatukarnya from Asurayana and Yiska. Asurayana from  Traivani. Traivani from Aupajandhani. Aupajandhani from  Asuri. Asuri from Bharadvaja. Bharadvaja from Atreya. Atreya  from Manti. Manti from Gautama. Gautama from another  Gautama. This Gautama from Vatsya. Vatsya from SandiIya.  Sandilya from Kaisorya Kapya. Kaisorya Kapya from  Kumaraharita. Kumaraharita from Galava. Galava from  Vidarbhikaundinya. Vidarbhikaundinya from Vatsanapat  Babhrava. Vatsanapat Babhrava from Pathin Saubhara. Pathin  Saubhara from Ayasya Angirasa. Ayasya Angirasa from Abhuti  Tvashtra. Abhuti Tvashtra from Visvarupa Tvashtra. Visvarupa  Tvashtra from the two Asvins. The two Asvins from Dadhyach  Atharvana. Dadhyach Atharvana from Atharvana Daiva.  Atharvana Daiva from Mrityu Pradhvamsana. Mrityu  Pradhvamsana from Pradhvamsana. Pradhvamsana from  Ekarshi. Ekarshi from Viprachitti. Viprachitti from Vyashti.  Vyashti from Sanaru. Sanaru from Sanitana. Sanitana from  Sanaga. Sanaga from Parameshthin (Viraj). Parameshthin from  Brahman (Hiranyagarbha). Brahman is self—born (eternal).  Salutation to Brahman. 

Part Five 

Chapter I—The Infinity of Brahman 

1.    Om. Infinite is That Brahman, infinite in this manifested  universe. From the Infinite Brahman proceeds the infinite.  After the realization of the Great Identity or after the cosmic  dissolution, when the infinity of the infinite universe merges in  the Infinite Brahman, there remains the Infinite Brahman alone.  Om is the Akasa Brahman—the primeval akasa. It is the akasa  containing air, says the son of Kauravayarn. It (Om) is the  Veda—thus the knowers of Brahman know; for through it one  knows what is to he known. 

Chapter II—The Three Great Disciplines 

1.    Prajapati had three kinds of offspring: gods, men and demons  (asuras). They lived with Prajapati, practising the vows of  brahmacharins. After finishing their term, the gods said to him:  "Please instruct us, Sir." To them he uttered the syllable da and  asked:  "Have you understood?" They replied: "We have. You said to  us, ‘Control yourselves (damyata).’ He said: "Yes, you have  understood." 

2.    Then the men said to him: "Please instruct us, Sir" To them he  uttered the same syllable da and asked: "Have you understood?" They replied: "We have. You said to  us, ‘Give (datta).’ He said: ‘Yes, you have understood. 

3.    Then the demons said to him: "Please instruct us, Sir." To them  he uttered the same syllable da and asked:  "Have you understood?" They replied: "We have. You said to  us: ‘Be compassionate (dayadhvam).’ He said: "Yes, you have  understood."  That very thing is repeated even today by the heavenly voice, in  the form of thunder, as "Da," "Da," "Da," which means:  "Control yourselves," "Give," and "Have compassion."  Therefore one should learn these three: self—control, giving  and mercy. 

Chapter III—Brahman as the Heart 

1.    Prajapati is this—the heart (intellect). It (the heart) is Brahman.  It is all. Hridayam (the heart) consists of three syllables. One  syllable is hri; and to him who knows this, his own people and  others bring presents. One syllable is da; and to him who knows  this, his own people and others give their powers. One syllable  is yam; and he who knows this goes to heaven. 

Chapter IV—Meditation on Satya Brahman 

1.    That intellect Brahman was verily this—satya alone. And  whosoever knows this great, glorious first—born one as the  Satya Brahman conquers these worlds. And his enemy is thus  conquered and becomes non—existent—yes, whosoever knows  this great, glorious first—born one as the Satya Brahman; for  Satya indeed is that Brahman. 

Chapter V—In Praise of Satya Brahman 

1.    In the beginning this universe was water alone. That water  produced Satya. Satya is Brahman. Brahman produced  Prajapati and Prajapati the gods. Those gods meditate on Satya.  This name Satya consists of three syllables. Sa is one syllable,  ti is one syllable and ya is one syllable. The first and last  syllables are the truth. In the middle is untruth. This untruth is  enclosed on both sides by truth; thus truth preponderates.  Untruth does not hurt him who knows this.  180 

2.    Now, that which is Satya is the sun—the being who dwells in  yonder orb and the being who is in the right eye. These two rest  on each other. The former (the being in the sun) rests on the  latter (the being in the right eye) through his rays and the latter  rests on the former through his organs. When the individual self  is about to leave the body, he sees the solar orb clearly (i.e.  without rays). Those rays no longer come to him. 

3.    Of this being who is in the solar orb, the syllable Bhuh is the  head, for there is one head and there is this one syllable; the  word Bhuvah is the arms, for there are two arms and there are  these two syllables; the word Svah is the legs, for there are two  legs and there are these two syllables. His secret name is Ahar.  He who knows this destroys evil and leaves it behind. 

4.    Of this being who is in the right eye, the syllable Bhur is the  head, for there is one head and there is this one syllable; the  word Bhuvar is the arms, for there are two arms and there are  these two syllables; the word Svar is the legs, for there are two  legs and there are these two syllables. His secret name is Aham.  He who knows this destroys evil and leaves it behind. 

Chapter VI—Meditation on Brahman as the Mind 

1.    This being identified with the mind and resplendent by nature is  realized by yogis within the heart as of the size of a grain of  rice or barley. He is the lord of all, the ruler of all and governs  all this  —whatever there is. 

Chapter VII—Meditation on Brahman as Lightning 

1.    They say that lightning is Brahman. It is called lightning  (vidyut) because it scatters (vidanat) darkness. Whosoever  knows this—that lightning is Brahman—scatters the evils that  are ranged against him; for lightning is indeed Brahman.  

Chapter VIII—Meditation on the Vedas as a Cow 

1.    One should meditate upon speech (the Vedas) as a cow. She  (speech) has four teats: the sounds Svaha; Vashat, Hanta and  Svadha. The gods live on two of her teats, Svaha and Vashat;  men, on Hanta; and the Manes on Svadha. Her bull is the vital  breath (prana) and her calf, the mind. 

Chapter IX——Meditation on the Vaisvanara Fire 

1.    This fire which is within a man and digests food that is eaten is  Vaisvanara. Its sound is that which one hears by stopping the  ears. When a man is about to leave the body, he hears this  sound no more. 

Chapter X——The Path of the Departing Soul 

1.    When a man departs from this world, he reaches the air. The air  opens there for him as wide as the hole of a chariot wheel.  Through this opening he ascends and reaches the sun. The sun  opens there for him as wide as the hole of a lambara. By this  opening he ascends and reaches the moon. The moon opens  there for him as wide as the hole of a drum. By this opening he  ascends and reaches a World free from grief and cold. There he  dwells for endless years. 

Chapter XI—The Supreme Austerities 

1.    The supreme austerity is indeed that a man suffers when he is  ill. He who knows this wins the highest world.  The supreme austerity is indeed that a man, after death, is  carried to the forest. He who knows this wins the highest world.  The supreme austerity is indeed that a man, after death, is laid  on the fire. He who knows this wins the highest world. 

Chapter XII—Meditation on Food and the Vital Breath as  Brahman 

1.    Some say that food is Brahman; but this is not so, for food  decays without the vital breath (prana). Others say that the vital breath is Brahman; but this is not so, for the vital breath dries  up without food. These two deities (food and the vital breath),  when they become united, attain the highest state  (Brahmanhood). Thus reflecting, Pratrida said to his father:  "What good, indeed, can I do him who knows this and what  evil can I do him either?"  His father answered, stopping him with a gesture of his hand:  "Oh, no, Pratrida; for who would attain the highest merely by  being identified with these two?"  Further, he (the father) said to him this: "It is vi; food is verily  vi, for all these creatures rest (visanti) on food. It is ram; the  vital breath is ram, for all these creatures delight (ramante) in  the vital breath." All creatures rest on him, all creatures delight  in him, who knows this. 

Chapter XIII—Meditation on the Vital Breath 

1.    One should meditate on the vital breath as the Uktha. The vital  breath is the Uktha, for it raises up (utthapayati) all this  universe. From him who knows this there is raised a son who is  a knower of the vital breath and he wins union with and abode  in the same world as the Uktha. 

2.    One should meditate upon the vital breath as the Yajus. The  vital breath is the Yajus, for all these beings are united  (yujyante) with one another if the vital breath is present. All  beings are united to give eminence to him who knows this and  he wins union with and abode in the same world as the Yajus  (vital breath). 

3.    One should meditate upon the vital breath as the Saman. The  vital breath is the Saman, for all these beings meet (samyanchi)  if the Saman (vital breath) is present. For the sake of him who  knows this all beings are united and they succeed in giving him  eminence; and he wins union with and abode in the same world  as the Saman. 

4.    One should meditate upon the vital breath as the Kshatra. The  vital breath is the Kshatra, for the vital breath protects (trayate)  the body from wounds (khanitoh). He who knows this attains  the Kshatra (vital breath) which needs no other protector and he  wins union with and abode in the same world as the Kshatra.     

Chapter XIV—The Sacred Gayatri 

1.    The words Bhumi (earth), Antariksha (sky) and Dyaus (heaven)  form eight syllables and the first foot of the Gayatri consists of  eight syllables. So the three worlds constitute the first foot of  the Gayatri. Whosoever knows this about the first foot of the  Gayatri wins all that is in the three worlds. 

2.    Richah, Yajumshi and Samani form eight syllables and the  second foot of the Gayatri consists of eight syllables. So these  three Vedas constitute the second foot of the Gayatri.  Whosoever thus knows the second foot of the Gayatri wins as  much as that treasury of knowledge, the three Vedas, has to  confer. 

3.    Prana, apana and vyana form eight syllables and the third foot  of the Gayatri. consists of eight syllables. So these three forms  of the vital breath constitute the third foot of the Gayatri.  Whosoever knows this about the third foot of the Gayatri wins  all the living beings that are in the universe.  Now, its turiya, apparently visible (darsata) and supramundane  (paroraja) foot is this—sun that glows yonder. That which is  fourth is called turiya. He (the being in the solar orb) is  apparently visible (darsata), because he is seen, as it were, by  the yogis. He is supramundane (paroraja), because he shines  alone on the whole universe as its overlord. He who thus knows  the fourth foot of the Gayatri shines with splendour and glory. 

4.    That Gayatri rests on that fourth, apparently visible,  supramundane foot. And that, again, rests on truth. The eye is  truth, for the eye is indeed truth. Therefore, even today, if two  persons come disputing, one saying: "I saw it," and another: "I  heard of it," we should trust the one who says: "I saw it.  That truth rests on strength. The vital breath (prana) is strength.  Hence truth rests on the vital breath. Therefore they say that  strength is more powerful than truth.  Thus the Gayatri is based on the vital breath within the body.  That Gayatri protected the gayas. The organs are the gayas;  therefore the Gayatri protected (tatre) the organs. Because it  protected the organs, it is called the Gayatri. The Savitri verse,  which the teacher communicates to the pupil, is no other than this. It saves the organs of the pupil to whom it is imparted by  the teacher. 

5.    Some impart to the pupil the Savitri which is in the Anushtubh  metre, saying: "The goddess of speech is Anushtubh; so we  shall impart it to him."  But one should not do that. One should impart only that Savitri  which is Gayatri. Verily, if one who knows this accepts too  much as a gift, as it were, it is not enough for even one foot of  the Gayatri. 

6.    If he (the knower of the Gayatri) accepts as a gift the three  worlds full of wealth, he will be receiving the fruit of knowing  only the first foot of the Gayatri. If he accepts as a gift as much  as this treasury of knowledge, the Vedas, has to confer, he will  be receiving the fruit of knowing only the second foot of the  Gayatri. And if he accepts as a gift as much as is covered by all  living creatures in the world, he will be receiving the fruit of  knowing only the third foot of the Gayatri. While the fruit of  knowing its fourth, apparently visible, supramundane foot—  yonder sun that glows—is not to be counterbalanced by any gift  received.  Indeed, how could anyone receive so much as a gift? 

7.    The salutation to the Gayatri:  "O Gayatri, thou art one—footed, two—footed, three—footed  and four—footed. And thou art without any feet, for thou art  unattainable. Salutation to thee, fourth foot, apparently visible  and supramundane! May the enemy never attain his object!"  Should the knower of the Gayatri bear hatred towards anyone,  he should either use this mantra: "May his desired object never  flourish!"—in which case that object of the person against  whom he thus salutes the Gayatri never flourishes—or he may  say: "May I attain that cherished object of his!" 

8.    On this subject Janaka, Emperor of Videha, said to Budila, the  son of Asvatarasva: "Well, how is it that you, who called  yourself a knower of the Gayatri, have come to he an elephant  and are carrying me?"  He replied: "Because, Your Majesty, I did not know its mouth."  Janaka said: "Fire is its mouth. If people put a large quantity of  fuel into the fire, it is all burnt up. Similarly, a man who knows  this, even if he commits a great many sins, consumes them all  and becomes pure, clean and free from decay and death." 

Chapter XV—The Prayer of a Dying Person 

1.    The door (real nature) of the truth (Satya Brahman) is covered  by a golden disc. Open it, O Nourisher! Remove it so that I  who have been worshipping the truth may behold it.  O Nourisher! O lone Traveller of the sky! O Controller! O Sun!  O Offspring of Prajapati! Gather your rays. Withdraw your  light. I would see through your grace that form of yours which  is the most benign. I am indeed He, that purusha who dwells in  the sun. I am immortal.  Now when my body falls may my breath return to the all—  pervading Prana! May this body, reduced to ashes, return to the  earth!  Om. O Fire, who art the symbol Om, O god of deliberations,  remember, remember all that I have done.  O Fire, lead us by the good path towards the enjoyment of the  fruit of our action. You know, O god, all our deeds. Destroy our  sin of deceit. We offer by words repeated salutations to you. 

Part Six

Chapter I—The Supremacy of the Prana 

1.    Om. He who knows what is the oldest and greatest becomes the  oldest and greatest among his kinsmen. The vital breath (prana)  is indeed the oldest and greatest. He who knows this becomes  the oldest and greatest among his kinsmen and also among  those of whom he wishes to be so. 

2.    He who knows what is the most excellent (vasishtha) becomes  the most excellent among his kinsmen. The organ of speech is  indeed the vasishtha. He who knows this becomes the most  excellent among his kinsmen and also among those of whom he  wishes to be so. 

3.    He who knows what has the attribute of steadiness (pratishtha)  lives steadily in rough as well as smooth places and times. The  eye indeed is endowed with steadiness, for with the help of the  eye one remains steady in rough as well as smooth places and  times. He who knows this lives steadily in rough as well as  smooth places and times. 

4.    He who knows prosperity (sampad) attains whatever object he  desires. The ear indeed is prosperity, for when the ear is intact  all the Vedas are acquired. He who knows this attains whatever  object he desires. 

5.    He who knows the abode (ayatana) becomes the abode of his  kinsmen and also of other people. The mind indeed is the  abode. He who knows this becomes the abode of his kinsmen  as well as of other people. 

6.    He who knows what has the attribute of procreation (prajati) is  enriched with children and animals. Semen verily has this  attribute. He who knows this is enriched with children and  animals. 

7.    These organs, disputing about who was superior among them,  went to Prajapati and asked: "Which one among us is the most  excellent (vasishtha)?" He said: "That one among you is the  most excellent by whose departure this body is considered to  suffer most." 

8.    The organ of speech departed. After being absent for a whole  year it came back and said: "How have you been able to live  without me?" The other organs said: "We lived just as dumb  people live, without speaking through the tongue, but living  through the vital breath, seeing through the eye, hearing  through the ear, knowing through the mind and procreating  through the organ of generation." Then the organ of speech  entered the body. 

9.    The eye departed. After being absent for a whole year it came  back and said: "How have you been able to live without me?"  The other organs said: "We lived just as blind people live,  without seeing through the eye, but living through the vital breath, speaking through the organ of speech, hearing through  the ear, knowing through the mind and procreating through the  organ of generation." Then the eye entered the body. 

10.    The ear went out. After being absent for a whole year it came  back and said: "How have you been able to live without me?"  The other organs said: "We lived just as deaf people live,  without hearing through the ear, but living through the vital  breath, speaking through the organ of speech, seeing through  the eye, knowing through the mind and procreating through the  organ of generation." Then the ear entered the body. 

11.    The mind went out. After being absent for a whole year it came  back and said: "How have you been able to live without me?"  The other organs said: "We lived just as idiots live, without  knowing through the mind, but living through the vital breath,  speaking through the organ of speech, seeing through the eye,  hearing through the ear and procreating through the organ of  generation." Then the mind entered the body. 

12.    Then the organ of generation went out. After being absent for a  whole year it came back and said: "How have you been able to  live without me?" The other organs said: "We lived just as  impotent people live, without procreating children through the  organ of generation, but living through the vital breath,  speaking through the organ of speech, seeing through the eye,  hearing through the ear and knowing through the mind." Then  the organ of generation entered the body. 

13.    Then as the vital breath was about to depart, it uprooted the  organs from their places just as a great, noble horse of the  Sindhu country tears up the pegs to which his feet are tied.  They said: "Venerable Sir, please do not go out. We shall not  be able to live without you."  "If I am such, then give me an offering."  "So be it." 

14.    The organ of speech said: "That attribute of being most  excellent which I possess is yours."  The eye said: "That attribute of steadiness which I possess is yours."  The ear said: "That attribute of prosperity which I possess is  yours."  The mind said: "That attribute of being an abode which I  possess is yours.  The organ of generation said: "That attribute of procreation  which I possess is yours."  Then the vital breath said: "If I am such, then what will be my  food and what will be my dress?"  They replied: "Whatever food there is—including that of dogs,  worms, insects and moths—will be your food and water will be  your dress."  He who knows the food of the vital breath to be such never  happens to eat anything or accept anything that is not food.  Wise men who are versed in the Vedas therefore take a sip of  water Just before and after eating; they think that thereby they  remove the nakedness of the vital breath. 

Chapter II—The Process of Rebirth 

1.    Svetaketu, the grandson of Aruna, came to the assembly of the  Panchalas. He approached Pravahana, the son of Jivala, who  was being waited upon by his courtiers. As soon as the king  saw him, he said:  "Is it you, boy?" He replied: "Yes, Sir."  Then the king asked: "Have you been taught by your father?"  "Yes," he replied. 

2.    The king said: "Do you know how people, after departing from  this life, proceed on different paths?" "No," he replied.  "Do you know how they return to this world?" "No," he replied.  "Do you know why the other world is never filled up even  though so many people go there again and again?" "No," he  replied.  "Do you know after how many offerings of oblations the water  (the liquid oblation) becomes endowed with a human voice,  rises up and speaks?" "No," he replied.  "Do you know the means of access to the path leading to the  gods or to that leading to the Manes, that is to say, through  what deeds men attain the path leading to the gods or that  leading to the Manes? We have heard the following words of  the Mantra: ‘I have heard of the two paths for men, one leading  to the Manes and the other to the gods. Going along them they  (departed souls) are united with their destination. They (the  paths) lie between the father (heaven) and the mother (earth).’  Svetaketu said: "I do not know even one of these."  

3.    Then the king invited him to stay. But the boy, disregarding the  invitation, hurried away. He went to his father and said: "Did  you not tell me before that you had fully instructed me?"  "What then, my intelligent child?"  "That fellow of a kshatriya asked me five questions and I did  not know one of them."  "What were they?"  "These," said Svetaketu and he recited them. 

4.    The father said: "My child, believe me, whatever I myself  knew, I told you. But come, let us go there and live as religious  students (brahmachirins)." "You may go, Sir," the son replied.  Then Gautama went to where King Pravahana, the son of  Jivala, was giving audience. The king offered him a seat,  ordered water for him and made him the reverential offering.  Then he said: "Revered Gautama, we will give you a boon." 

5.    Gautama said: "You have promised me this boon. Now please  tell me what you spoke about to my boy." 

6.    The king said: "Ah, those are divine boons, Gautama. Please  ask a human boon." 

7.    Gautama said: "You know well that I have gold, cows, horses,  maidservants, retinue and apparel. Please do not be ungenerous  towards me in regard to that gift which is plentiful, infinite and  in—exhaustible."  The king said: "Then, verily, O Gautama, you should ask it in  the prescribed way."  Gautama replied: "I approach you as a disciple."  The ancients used to approach a teacher through mere  declaration. So Gautama lived with the king by merely  announcing that he was a student. 

8.    The king said: "Please do not be offended with us even as your  paternal grandfather was not offended with ours. Before now  this knowledge never rested with a brahmin. But I shall teach it  to you, for who can refuse you when you speak like this?  190 

9.    "Yonder world is the sacrificial fire, the sun is its fuel, the rays  its smoke, the day its flame, the four quarters its cinders and the  intermediate quarters its sparks. In this fire the gods offer faith  as libation. Out of that offering King Moon is born. 

10.    "Parjanya (the god of rain), O Gautama, is the fire, the year is  its fuel, the clouds its smoke, lightning its flame, the  thunderbolt its cinders, the rumbling its sparks. In this fire the  gods offer King Moon as libation. Out of that offering rain is  produced. 

11.    "This world, O Gautama, is the fire, the earth is its fuel, fire its  smoke, the night its flame, the moon its cinders, the stars its  sparks. In this fire the gods offer rain as libation. Out of that  offering food is produced. 

12.    "Man, O Gautama, is the fire, the open mouth is its fuel, the  vital breath its smoke, speech its flame, the eye its cinders and  the ear its sparks. In this fire the gods offer food as libation.  Out of that offering semen is produced. 

13.    "Woman, O Gautama, is the fire, her sexual organ is the fuel,  the hairs the smoke, the vulva the flame, sexual intercourse the  cinders, enjoyment the sparks. In this fire the gods offer semen  as libation. Out of this offering a man is born. He lives as long  as he is to live. Then, when he dies, 

14.    "They carry him to be offered in the fire. The fire becomes his  fire, the fuel his fuel, the smoke his smoke, the flame his flame,  the cinders his cinders and the sparks his sparks. In this fire the  gods offer the man as libation. Out of this offering the man  emerges in radiant splendour. 

15.    "Those even among householders who know this, as described  and those too who, living in the forest, meditate with faith upon  the Satya Brahman (Hiranyagarbha), reach the deity identified with flame, from him the deity of the day, from him the deity  of) the fortnight in which the moon waxes, from him the deities  of the six months during which the sun travels northward, from  them the deity identified with the world of the gods (devaloka),  from him the sun, from the sun the deity of lightning. Then a  being created from the mind of Hiranyagarbha comes and leads  them to the worlds of Brahmin. In those worlds of Brahma they  become exalted and live for many years. They no more return  to this world. 

16.    "But those who conquer the worlds through sacrifices, charity  and austerity reach the deity of smoke, from smoke, the deity of  the night, from night the deity of the fortnight in which the  moon wanes, from the decreasing half of the moon the deities  of the six months during which the sun travels southward, from  these months the deity of the world of the Manes and from the  world of the Manes, the moon. Reaching the moon they  become food. There the gods enjoy them, just as here the  priests drink the shining soma juice—saying as it were:  "Flourish, dwindle." And when their past work is exhausted  they reach this very akasa, from the akasa they reach the air,  from the air rain, from rain the earth. Reaching the earth they  become food. Then they are again offered in the fire of man  and thence in the fire of woman. Out of the fire of woman they  are born and perform rites with a view to going to other worlds.  Thus do they rotate.  "Those, however, who do not know these two ways become  insects and moths and those creatures which often bite (i.e.  mosquitoes and gnats)." 

Chapter III—Rites for the Attainment of Wealth 

1.    Whoever wishes to attain greatness (i.e. wealth for performing  sacrificial rites) should act as follows: On an auspicious day of  the fortnight in which the moon waxes, under a constellation  bearing a masculine name, during the northward journey of the  sun, he should undertake for twelve days a vow connected with  the Upasads, gather in a cup or a bowl made of fig wood all the  herbs and their grains, sweep and plaster the ground, lay the  fire, spread the kusa grass, purify the offering (clarified butter)  according to the rules, place between himself and the fire the  mantha (the paste made of those herbs etc.) and offer oblations  with the following mantras:  "O Fire, to all those gods under you who spitefully slay men’s  desires, I offer their share. May they be satisfied and satisfy me  with all the objects of my desire! Svaha!  "To that deity who turns out to be spiteful under your  protection, thinking that she is the support of all, I offer this  stream of clarified butter. Svaha!" 

2.    "Svaha to the oldest, svaha to the greatest!"—uttering these  words, he offers an oblation in the fire and lets the remainder  adhering to the ladle drip into the paste (mantha).  "Svaha to the vital breath (prana), svaha to the vasishtha (the  most excellent)!"—uttering these words, he offers an oblation  in the fire and lets the remainder adhering to the ladle drip into  the paste (mantha).  "Svaha to the organ of speech, svaha to that which has  steadiness!"  —uttering these words, he offers an oblation in the fire and lets  the remainder adhering to the ladle drip into the paste (mantha).  "Svaha to the eye, svaha to prosperity!"—uttering these words,  he offers an oblation in the fire and lets the remainder adhering  to the ladle drip into the paste (mantha).  "Svaha to the ear, svaha to the abode!"—uttering these words,  he offers an oblation in the fire and lets the remainder adhering  to the ladle drip into the paste (mantha).  "Svaha to the mind, svaha to procreation (prajati)!"—uttering  these words, he offers an oblation in the fire and lets the  remainder adhering to the ladle drip into the paste (mantha).  "Svaha to the organ of generation!"—uttering these words, he  offers an oblation in the fire and lets the remainder adhering to  the ladle drip into the paste (mantha). 

3.    "Svaha to fire"—uttering these words, he offers an oblation in  the fire and lets the remainder adhering to the ladle drip into the  paste.  "Svaha to the moon"—uttering these words, he offers an  oblation in the fire and lets the remainder adhering to the ladle  drip into the paste.  "Svaha to the earth"—uttering these words, he offers an  oblation in the fire and lets the remainder adhering to the ladle  drip into the paste.  "Svaha to the sky"—uttering these words, he offers an oblation  in the fire and lets the remainder adhering to the ladle drip into  the paste.  "Svaha to heaven"—uttering these words, he offers an oblation  in the fire and lets the remainder adhering to the ladle drip into  the paste.  "Svaha to earth, sky and heaven"—uttering these words, he  offers an oblation in the fire and lets the remainder adhering to  the ladle drip into the paste.  "Svaha to the brahmin"—uttering these words, he offers an  oblation in the fire and lets the remainder adhering to the ladle  drip into the paste.  "Svaha to the kshatriya"—uttering these words, he offers an  oblation in the fire and lets the remainder adhering to the ladle drip into the paste.  "Svaha to the past"—uttering these words, he offers an oblation  in the fire and lets the remainder adhering to the ladle drip into  the paste.  "Svaha to the future"—uttering these words, he offers an  oblation in the fire and lets the remainder adhering to the ladle  drip into the paste.  "Svaha to the universe"—uttering these words, he offers an  oblation in the fire and lets the remainder adhering to the ladle  drip into the paste.  "Svaha to all"—uttering these words, he offers an oblation in  the fire and lets the remainder adhering to the ladle drip into the  paste.  "Svaha to Prajapati"—uttering these words, he offers an  oblation in the fire and lets the remainder adhering to the ladle  drip into the paste. 

4.    Then he touches the paste, uttering the mantra: "You move as  the vital breath; you bum as fire; you are infinite as Brahman;  you are unshaken as the sky. You are the meeting—place of all.  You are the sound hing and are uttered as hing in the sacrifice  by the prastotri. You are the Udgitha and are chanted by the  udgatri. You are recited by the adhvaryu and recited back by  the agnidhra. You are fully ablaze in the moist cloud. You are  omnipresent and the ruler. You are food as the moon and light  as fire. You are death and you are that in which all things  merge." 

5.    Then he raises the paste, saying: "As the vital breath you know  all; we too are aware of your greatness as the vital breath. The  vital breath is the king, the ruler, the sovereign. May it make  me king, ruler and sovereign." 

6.    Then he eats the paste, saying: ‘Tat saviturvarenyam’ (‘That  adorable light’)—’The winds blow sweetly (madhu), the rivers  pour forth sweetness (madhu); may the herbs be sweet (madhu)  unto us!’ ‘Svaha to the earth (Bhuh).  ‘Bhargo devasya dhimahi’—(‘Of the radiant sun, We meditate  upon’ )—’May the nights and days be sweet (madhu), may the dust of the earth be sweet (madhu), may heaven, our father, be  sweet (madhu)!’ ‘Svaha to the sky (Bhuvah).’  ‘Dhiyo yo nah prachodayit’ (‘May He stimulate our  intellect’)—  ‘May the soma creeper be sweet (madhu) unto us, may the sun  be sweet (madhu), may the quarters be filled with sweetness  (madhu) for us!’ ‘Svaha to heaven (Svah).’  Then he repeats the whole Gayatri and all the verses about  sweetness (madhumati) and says at the end: "May I be all this!  Svaha to earth, sky and heaven.  Then he eats all that is left of the paste, washes his hands and  lies down behind the fire with his head to the east.  In the morning he salutes the sun saying: "You are the one  non—dual and best lotus of the quarters; may I be the one lotus  among men.  Then he returns the way he went, sits behind the fire and  repeats the line of teachers. 

7.    Uddalaka, the son of Aruna, taught this to his pupil Vijasaneya  Yajnavalkya and said: "Should One pour it (the paste) even On  a dry stump, branches would grow and leaves spring forth." 

8.    Then Vajasaneya Yajnavalkya taught this to his pupil  Madhuka, the son of Paingi and said: "Should one pour it even  on a dry stump, branches would grow and leaves spring forth." 

9.    Then Madhuka, the son of Paingi, taught this to his pupil  Chula, the son of Bhagavitta and said: "Should one pour it even  on a dry stump, branches would grow and leaves spring forth." 

10.    Then Chula, the son of Bhagavitta, taught this to his disciple  Janaki, the son of Ayasthuna and said: "Should One pour it  even on a dry stump, branches would grow and leaves spring  forth." 

11.    Then Janaki, the son of Ayasthuna, taught this to his pupil  Satyakama, the son of Jabala and said: "Should one pour it  even on a dry stump, branches would grow and leaves spring  forth."     

12.    And Satyakama, the son of Jabala, taught this to his pupils and  said:  "Should one pour it even on a dry stump, branches would grow  and leaves spring forth."  One must not teach this to anyone but a son or a pupil. 

13.    Four articles are made of fig wood: the sacrificial ladle, the  bowl, the fuel and the two mixing—rods.  The cultivated grains are ten in number: Rice, barley, sesamum,  beans, millet (anu), panic seeds (priyangu), wheat, lentils, pulse  and vetch.  They should be crushed and soaked in curds, honey and  clarified butter and offered as an oblation. 

Chapter IV—Conception and Birth as Religious Rites 

1.    The earth is verily the essence of all these beings, water is the  essence of the earth, herbs of water, flowers of herbs, fruits of  flowers, man of fruits and semen is the essence of man. 

2.    Prajapati said to Himself: "Well, let Me make a firm basis for it  (semen)." So He created woman. Having created her, He placed  her below and worshipped her. Therefore one should worship a  woman, placing her below. He (Prajapati) extended His organ that projects and with it impregnated her. 

3.    Her lap is the sacrificial altar, her hair the sacrificial grass, her  skin within the organ the lighted fire; the two labia of the vulva  are the two stones of the soma—press.  He who, knowing this, practises sexual intercourse wins as  great a world as is won through the Vijapeya sacrifice; he  acquires for himself the fruit of the good deeds of the woman.  But he who, without knowing this, practises sexual intercourse  turns over to the woman his own good deeds. 

4.    Having known this, Uddalaka the son of Aruna, Naka the son  of Mudgala and Kumara—harita said: "Many mortals,  brahmins only in name, perform the sexual act without knowledge of what has been said and depart from this world  impotent and without merit."  Even if this much semen—of one asleep or of one awake—is  spilled, 

5.    He should touch it and repeat the following mantra:  "Whatever semen of mine has spilt on earth, whatever has  flowed to plants, whatever to water, I reclaim it."  With these words he should take the semen with his ring finger  and thumb and rub it between his breasts or eyebrows,  repeating the following mantra:  "Let the semen return to me, let Vigour come to me again, let  glow and good fortune come to me again. May the deities who  dwell in the sacrificial fire put the semen back in its proper  place." 

6.    Now, if a man sees himself (his reflection) in water, he should  recite the following mantra:  "May the gods bestow on me vigour, manhood, fame, wealth  and merit."  In praise of the wife who will bear him a son:  She (his wife) has put on the soiled clothes of impurity; she is,  verily, loveliness among women. Therefore when she has  removed the clothes of impurity and appears beautiful, he  should approach her and speak to her. 

7.    If she does not willingly yield her body to him, he should buy  her with presents. If she is still unyielding, he should strike her  with a stick or with his hand and overcome her, repeating the  following mantra:  "With power and glory I take away your glory."  Thus she becomes discredited. 

8.    If she grants his desire, he should repeat the following mantra:  "With power and glory I give you glory."  Thus they both become glorious. 

9.    If a man desires his wife with the thought: "May she enjoy love  with me," then, after inserting the member in her, joining  mouth to mouth and stroking her organ, he should utter the following mantra:  "O semen, you have been produced from my every limb,  especially from my heart through the essence of food you are  the essence of the limbs. Bring this woman under my control,  like a deer pierced by a poisoned arrow." 

10.    Now, the wife whom he desires with the thought: "May she not  conceive"—after inserting the member in her and joining  mouth to mouth, he should inhale and then exhale, repeating  the following mantra:  "With power, with semen, I reclaim the semen from you."  Thus she comes to be without semen. 

11.    Now, the wife whom he desires with the thought: "May she  conceive"—after inserting the member in her and joining  mouth to mouth, he should inhale and then exhale, repeating  the following mantra:  "With power, with semen, I deposit semen in you."  Thus she verily becomes pregnant. 

12.    Now, if a man’s wife has a paramour whom he detests, he  should perform the following rite in order to cast an evil spell  upon him:  Let him put fire in an unbaked earthen vessel, spread stalks of  reed and kusa grass inversely and offer in the sacrificial fire the  reed tips, soaked in clarified butter, inversely, repeating the  following mantra:  "You have made a libation in my kindled fire! I take away your  prana and apana, you, _______! Here the name of the evil—doer should be uttered. You have made a libation in my kindled  fire! I take away your sons and cattle, you, _______! You have  made a libation in my kindled fire! I take away your Vedic rites  and those done according to the Smritis, you, _______! You  have made a libation in my kindled fire! I take away your hopes  and expectations, you, _______  He whom a brahmin who knows this rite curses, departs from  this world impotent and shorn of merit. Therefore let no one  even joke with the wife of a Vedic scholar who knows this rite;  for he who has this knowledge is a dangerous enemy. 

13.    If a man’s wife has the monthly sickness, she should for three  days drink water from a cup made of bell metal. Let no sudra man or woman touch her. After three nights she should bathe,  put on a new cloth and her husband should make her thresh  rice. 

14.    If a man wishes that a son with a fair complexion should be  born to him, that he should study one Veda and that he should  attain a full term of life, then they (husband and wife) should  have rice cooked in milk and eat it with clarified butter. Thus  they should be able to beget such a son. 

15.    If a man wishes that a son with a tawny or brown complexion  should be born to him, that he should study two Vedas and that  he should attain a full term of life, then they should have rice  cooked in curds and eat it with clarified butter. Thus they  should be able to beget such a son. 

16.    If a man wishes that a son with a dark complexion and red eyes  should be born to him, that he should study three Vedas and  that he should attain a full term of life, then they should have  rice cooked in water and eat it with clarified butter. Thus they  should be able to beget such a son. 

17.    If a man wishes that a daughter should be born to him who will  be a scholar and attain a full term of life, then they should have  rice cooked with sesamum and eat it with clarified butter. Thus  they should be able to beget such a daughter. 

18.    If a man wishes that a son should be born to him who will be a  famous scholar, frequenting assemblies and speaking delightful  words, a student of all the Vedas and an enjoyer of the full term  of life, he should have rice cooked with the meat of a young  bull or of one more advanced in years and he and his wife  should eat it with clarified butter. Then they should be able to  beget such a son. 

19.    Now, towards morning he purifies the clarified butter according  to the rules of Sthalipaka and offers Sthalipaka oblations  repeatedly, saying:  "Svaha to fire! Svaha to Anumati! Svaha to the radiant sun,  who produces infallible results!"  Having made the offering, he takes up the remnant of the  cooked food, eats part of it and gives the rest to his wife. Then  he washes his hands, fills the water—vessel and sprinkles her  thrice with water, uttering once this mantra:  "Get up from here, O Visvavasu! Seek another young woman, a  wife with her husband." 

20.    Then he embraces her, repeating the following mantra:  I am the vital breath and you are speech. You are speech and I  am the vital breath. I am Saman and you are Rig; I am heaven  and you are earth. Come, let us strive together so that we may  have a male child." 

21.    Then he spreads apart her thighs, repeating the following  mantra:  "Spread yourselves apart, Heaven and Earth."  Inserting the member in her and joining mouth to mouth, he  strokes her three times from head to foot, repeating the  following mantra:  "Let Vishnu make the womb capable of bearing a son! Let  Tvashtra shape the various limbs of the child! Let Prajapati  pour in the semen! Let Dhatra support the embryo! O Sinivali,  make her conceive; O goddess whose glory is widespread,  make her conceive! May the two Atvins, garlanded with  lotuses, support the embryo! 

22.    "Let the two Atvins chum the womb with the two golden arani  sticks! I am placing a seed in your womb to be delivered in the  tenth month. As the earth has fire in its womb, as heaven is  pregnant with the sun, as the quarters are impregnated by air, so  I am impregnating you by placing this seed in your womb."  After the reciting of the mantra, he utters his own name and  that of his wife and places the seed. 

23.    When she is about to deliver the child, he sprinkles her with  water, repeating the following mantra:  "As the wind agitates a pond on every side, even so let your  foetus stir and come out along with the chorion. Indra (prana)  made a path when the seed entered the womb. O Indra, follow  200  that path and come out with the foetus and the covering and  cause also the after birth to come forth with the babe." 

24.    When the son is born, he should light a fire, take the child on  his lap, put a mixture of curds and clarified butter in a bell—  metal cup and offer oblations in the fire repeatedly, uttering the  mantra:  "May I increase as the son in my own home and support a  thousand people! May the Goddess of Fortune never depart,  with children and cattle, from his line! Svaha! The vital breath  that is in me, I mentally offer to you. Svaha! If I have done  anything too much or too little in this ceremony, may the all—  knowing and highly beneficent fire make it just right and  proper for me. Svaha!" 

25.    The, putting his month to the child’s right ear, he should say  thrice: "Speech! Speech!" Next he would mix together curds,  honey and clarified butter and feed the child with a golden stick  which is not placed inside the month, saying these mantras:  "I put the earth (Bhuh) into you; I put the sky (Bhuvah) into  you; I put heaven (Svah) into you. The whole of earth, sky and  heaven I put into you." 

26.    Then he (the father) gives him (the son) a name: ‘You are the  Veda (knowledge)." That is his secret name. 

27.    Then he presents him to the mother to give him her breast,  uttering the mantra:  "O Sarasvati, that breast of thine which is fruitful, the sustainer  of all, full of milk, the bestower of wealth and generous and by  which thou nourishest all who are worthy—transfer that breast  here to my wife, for my child to suck. 

28.    Then he addresses the mother of the child thus:  ‘You are the adorable Arundhati, the wife of Vasishtha and  with me, who am a man, as your partner you have brought forth  a male child. Be the mother of many male children, for you  have given us a son.  

Chapter V—The Line of Teachers 

1.    Now the line of teachers:  The son of Pautimashi received this knowledge from the son of  Katyayani. The son of Katyayani from the son of Gautami. The  son of Gautami from the son of Bharadvaji. The son of  Bharadvaji from the son of Parasari. The son of Parasari from  the son of Aupasvasti. The son of Aupasvasti from the son of  another Parasari. The son of this Parasari from the son of  Katyayani. The son of Katyayani from the son of Kausiki. The  son of Kausiki from the son of Alambi and the son of  Vaiyaghrapadi. The son of Vaiyaghrapadi from the son of  Kanvi and the son of Kapi. The son of Kapi 

2.    From the son of Atreyi. The son of Atreyi from the son of  Gautami. The son of Gautami from the son of Bharadvaji. The  son of Bharadvaji from the son of Parasari. The son of Parasari  from the son of Vatsi. The son of Vatsi from the son of another  Parasan.. The son of this Parasan from the son of Varkaruni.  The son of Varkaruni from the son of another Varkaruni. The  son of this Varkaruni from the son of Artabbagi. The son of  Artabbagi from the son of Saungi. The son of Saungi from the  son of Sankriti. The son of Sankriti from the son of  Alambayani. The son of Alambayani from the son of Alambi.  The son of Alambi from the son of Jayanti. The son of Jayanti  from the son of Mandukayani. The son of Mandukayani from  the son of Manduki. The son of Manduki from the son of  Sandili. The son of Sandili from the son of Rathitari. The son of  Rathitari from the son of Bhaluki. The son of Bhaluki from the  two sons of Kraunchiki. The two sons of Kraunchiki from the  son of Vaidabhriti. The son of Vaidabhriti from the son of  Karsakeyi. The son of Karsakeyi from the son of Prachinayogi.  The son of Prachinayogi from the son of Sanjivi. The son of  Sanjivi from Asurivasin, who was the son of Prasni. The son of  Prasni from Asurayana. Asurayana from Asuri. Asuri 

3.    From Yajnavalkya. Yajnavalkya from Uddalaka. Uddalaka  from Aruna. Aruna from Upavesi. Upavesi from Kusri. Kusri  from Vajasravas. Vajasravas from Jihvavat, the son of  Badhyoga. Jihvavat, the son of Badhyoga, from Asita, the son  of Varshagana. Asita, the son of Varshagana, from Harita  Kasyapa. Harita Kasyapa from Silpa Kasyapa. Silpa Kasyapa  from Kasyapa, the son of Nidhruva. Kasyapa, the son of  Nidhruva, from Vach. Vach from Ambhini. Ambhini from the sun. These white Yajuses (sacrificial formulas not vitiated by  human blemishes) are explained by Yajnavalkya, belonging to  the Vajasaneyi school. 

4.    The line of teachers is the same up to the son of Sanjivi. The  son of Sanjivi received this knowledge from Mandukayani.  Mandukayani from Mandavya. Mandavya from Kautsa. Kautsa  from Mahitthi. Mahitthi from Vamakakshiyana.  Vamakakshiyana from Sandilya. Sandilya from Vatsya. Vatsya  from Kusri. Kusri from Yajnavachas, the son of Rajastamba.  Yajnavachas, the son of Rajastamba, from Tura, the son of  Kavashi. Tura, the son of Kavashi, from Prajapati  (Hiranyagarbha). Prajapati received this knowledge from his  relationship to Brahman (the Vedas). Brahman is self—  existent. Salutation to Brahman.  

End of Brihadaranyaka Upanishad  

The Peace Chant  

Om. That is full; this is full. This fullness has been projected  from that fullness. When this fullness merges in that fullness,  all that remains is fullness.  

Om. Peace! Peace! Peace!


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